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Reference Works / Primary Sources / Secondary Sources

Reference Works

Guides / Dictionaries, Encyclopedias, Handbooks, Manuals & Gazetteers / Biographical Sources / Libraries & Archives


De Archieven van de Verenigde Oostindische Compagnie. The Archives of the Dutch East India Company (1602-1795). Comp. by R. Raben, H. Spijkerman and M. Meilink-Roelofsz. Sdu Uitgeverij Koninginnegracht: '-Gravernhage, 1992.

GOMMANS, Jos, BES, Lennant, and KRUJTZER, Gijs, Dutch Sources on South Asia c.1600-1825 Vol.1 Bibliography and Archival Guide to the National Archives at the Hague (Netherlands). New Delhi: Manohar, 2001. [see: pp.59-73; 221-299].

GOONETILEKE, H.A.I. A Bibliography of Ceylon. 1970.

Guide to the Papers of Lachlan Macquarie and the Macquarie Family in the Mitchell Library, State Library of NSW. Sydney: Library Council of NSW, 1990.

Dictionaries, Encyclopedias, Handbooks, Manuals & Gazetteers

Encyclopedia of Asian History. (ed). Ainslie T. Embree. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1988 [4 vols].

History of the Public Works Department, Ceylon 1796 to 1896. Compiled by P.M. Bingham. Colombo: Goverment Printer, 1922 [Vols.I-II].

LEWIS, Ivor. Sahibs, Nabobs and Boxwallahs: a dictionary of the words of Anglo-India. Bombay: Oxford University Press, 1991.

Sri Lanka Gazetteer. (ed.) S.R. Bakshi. New Delhi: Cosmo Publications, 2000 [2 vols].

WHITE, Herbert, The Manual of the Province of Uva. Colombo: Government Printer, 1893.

YULE, Henry and Burnell, A.C. Hobson-Jobson: a glossary of colloquial Anglo-Indian words and phrases, and of kindred terms, etymological, historical, geographical and discursive. Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal, 1968 (2nd ed.). [New ed. edited by William Crooke].

Biographical Sources

Australian Dictionary of Biography. [ADB]. Vols.1-2: 1788 -1850. (ed.) Douglas Pike. Melbourne: Melbourne University Press,1966-1967.

Dictionary of Australian Artists: Painters, Sketchers, Photographers and Engravers to 1870. (Ed.) Joan Kerr. Melbourne: Oxford University Press,1992.

Dictionary of National Biography. [DNB]. London: Elder Smith & Co., 1885-1888.

Ferrar, M.L. Officers of the the Green Howards, Alexandra, Princess of Wales' Own (Yorkshire Regiment) (formerly the 19th Foot) 1688 to 1920. London: Eden Fisher & Co. 1920.

JOHNSON, William, Roll of Commissioned Officers in the Medical Services of the British Army. Aberdeen: Aberdeen University Press, 1917.

Lagden, Alan and Sly, John, The 2/73rd At Waterloo. Brightlingsea, Essex, Privately Printed, 1998 [2nd ed.]

LEWIS, J. Penry, List of Inscriptions on Tombstones and Monuments in Ceylon of Historical or Local Interest, with an Obituary of Persons Uncommemorated. Colombo: Government Printer, 1913 [Reprint: New Delhi: Navrang, 1994].

Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. (eds.) Colin Matthew and Brian Harrison. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004 [60 vols].

RIDDICK, John F. Who Was Who in British India. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press. 1998.

The Royal Military Calendar or Army Service and Commission Book containing the services and progress of promotion of the Generals, Lieutenant-Generals, Major-Generals, Colonels, Lieutenant-Colonels, and Majors of the Army, according to seniority: with details of the principal miliatry events of the last century. London: A.J. Valpy, 1820 (5 vols). [Facsimile reprint: The Naval & Military Press, 2003].

SKELTON, Constance Oliver, and BULLOCH, John Malcolm. Gordons Under Arms: a biographical muster roll of officers named Gordon in the navies and armies of Britain, Europe, America and in the Jacobite risings. Aberdeen: The New Spalding Club, 1912.

Libraries & Archives

Institutions with relevant mss., archival and museum holdings include:

Mitchell Library [State Library of NSW, Sydney]
State Records [Archives Office of NSW, Sydney]

Nationaal Archief van Nederland [National Archives of the Netherlands, The Hague]
Rijksmuseum [Amsterdam]

Sri Lanka
Dutch Period Museum [Colombo]
National Archives of Sri Lanka [Colombo]

United Kingdom
India Office Library [British Library, London]
National Library of Scotland

Primary Sources

Contemporary Works to 1900 / Personal Accounts

Contemporary Works to 1900

Annual Register
Asiatic Journal and Monthly Register
Asiatic Register
Asiatic Researches
Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine
Ceylon Antiquary and Literary Register
Ceylon Government Gazette
Edinburgh Review
Hobart Town Gazette and Southern Reporter
The Naval Chronicle: containing a general and biographical history of the Royal Navy of the United Kingdom &c. &c. [1799 -1818]
Sydney Gazette & New South Wales Advertiser [1803-1822]

Personal Accounts

ALEXANDER, Alexander, The Life of Alexander Alexander Written By Himself. (ed.) John Howell. London: William Blackwood, 1830 [2 vols].
[See: Vol. 1 Chapter 3 pp.102-212 dealing with Alexander's military service in Ceylon].

BERTOLACCI, Anthony, A View of the Agricultural, Commercial and Financial Interests of Ceylon. London: first publ.1817. [Reprint: Dehiwala, Sri Lanka: Tisara Prakasakayo, 1983].

de BUSSCHE, Capt. L. Letters on Ceylon particularly relative to the Kingdom of Kandy. London: Stockdale, 1817. [Reprint: New Delhi: Asian Educational Services, 1999].

CALLADINE, G. The Diary of Colour-Sergeant George Calladine, 1793-1837.
edited by M.L. Ferrar. London: Eden Fisher, 1922.

CLEGHORN, Hugh, The Cleghorn Papers: a footnote to history: being the diary 1795-1796 of Hugh Cleghorn of Stravithe. (ed.) Wiliam Neil. London: Black, 1927.

CORDINER, Rev. James, A Description of Ceylon: containing an account of the country, inhabitants and natural productions; with narratives of a tour round the island in 1800, the campaign in Candy in 1803, and a journey to Ramisseram in 1804.
First publ. London: 1807. [Reprint 1983].

DAVY, John, An Account of the Interior of Ceylon and of Its Inhabitants with Travels in that Island. Dehiwala, Ceylon: Tisara Prakasakayo, 1969. [Orig. publ. 1821].

D'OYLY, John Diary of Mr. John D'Oyly. Colombo: Navrang, 1995 [reprint]
(Orig. publ. in 1917 as a Special Publication issued by Ceylon Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, Vol. XXV., No. 69).

FORBES, Major, Eleven Years in Ceylon: comprising sketches of the field sports and natural history of that colony, and an account of its history and antiquities.
London: Richard Bentley, 1840.

GRAHAM, Maria Journal of a Residence in India. Edinburgh: George Ramsay, 1812. [See: pp.85-107].

MARSHALL, Henry, Ceylon: a General Description of the Island and of Its Inhabitants. Dehiwala, Sri Lanka : Tisara Prakasakayo, 1982. [Orig. publ. 1846].

MARSHALL, Henry, Notes on the Medical Topography of the Interior of Ceylon; and on the health of the troops employed in the Kandyan provinces during the years 1815,1816,1817,1818,1819, and 1820 with brief remarks on the prevailing diseases. London: Burgess and Hill, 1821.

A Narrative of Events which have recently occurred in the Island of Ceylon. Written by a Gentleman on the spot. London: 1815. [compilation from the London Gazette and related contemporary newspapers].

The Recollections of Sergeant Morris
edited by John Selby. Moreton-in-Marsh, Gloucestershire: Windrush Press, 1998.
[Originally published as: Recollections of Military Service in 1813, 1814, and 1815. London: Madden, 1845].

VALENTIA, George, Voyages and Travels to India, Ceylon, The Red Sea, Abysinnia, and Egypt in the years 1802, 1803, 1804, 1805 and 1806.
London: Rivington, 1811. [4 vols.]
[Reprint: New Delhi; Asian Educational Services, 1994].

WELSH, James, Military Reminiscences: extracted from a journal of nearly forty years' active service in the East Indies London: Smith, Elder & Co, 1830, 3rd ed. [2 vols].

Secondary Sources

General Works / Art Architecture & Culture / Biographical / Maritime / Medical / Military History / Espionage / Places/ Additional Sources

General Works

Colonial Empires Compared: Britain and the Netherlands 1750-1850. (eds.) Bob Moore and Henk van Nierop. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2002.

GOONERATNE, Brendon. The Epic Struggle of the Kingdom of Kandy and its Relevance to Modern Indo-Sri Lankan Relations. London: Argus, 1995.

GOONERATNE, Brendon and GOONERATNE, Yasmine. This Inscrutable Englishman: Sir John D'Oyly, Baronet, 1774-1824. London: Cassell, 1999.

MILLS, L.A. Ceylon Under British Rule, 1795-1932. London: Frank Cass, 1964. [orig. publ. 1933].

PIERIS, P. E. Tri Sinhala : the last phase, 1796-1815. Colombo: Colombo Apothecaries, 1939.

PIERIS, Ralph. Sinhalese Social Organization: The Kandyan Period. Colombo: Ceylon University Press, 1956.

SCHRIKKER, Alicia. Dutch and British Colonial Intervention in Sri Lanka, 1780-1815. Leiden: Brill 2007.

de SILVA, Colvin R. Ceylon Under the British Occupation, 1795-1833. Colombo: Colombo Apothecaries' Co., 1953-1962. [2nd ed.]

de SILVA, K.M. A History of Sri Lanka. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1981.

VIMALANANDA, Tennakoon, The Great Rebellion of 1818: the story of the first war of independence and betrayal of the nation. Colombo: M.D. Gunasena, 1970. [Gunasena Historical Series V.5 Pt.1].

WICKREMERATNE, V.C. "The English East India Company and Society in the Maritime Provinces of Ceylon 1796-1802." Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland 1971 No.2 pp. 139-155.

Art, Architecture & Culture

Furniture from British India and Ceylon: a catalogue of the collections in the Victoria and Albert Museum and the Peabody Essex Museum. London: V & A Publications, 2001.

de SILVA, R.K.
Early Prints of Ceylon (Sri Lanka): 1800-1900.
London: Serendib Publications, 1985.

de SILVA, R.K. and BEUMER, W.G.M.
Illustrations and Views of Dutch Ceylon 1602-1796 : A Comprehensive Work of Pictorial Reference with Selected Eye-witness Accounts.
London: Serendib Publications, 1988.


Lachlan Macquarie

ELLIS, M. H., Lachlan Macquarie: his life, adventures, and times.
Sydney: Angus & Robertson, 1952 [2nd ed. revised].

McGUANNE, J.P. "Lachlan Macquarie and his Times up to 1810." Royal Australian Historical Society. Journal. Vol. 4, Part 2, 1917, pp. 49 -124.

RITCHIE, John, Lachlan Macquarie: a biography.
Melbourne: Melbourne University Press, 1986 pp.25-49.

John D'Oyly
GOONERATNE, Brendon and GOONERATNE, Yasmine, This Inscrutable Englishman. Sir John D'Oyly (1774-1824) London; Cassell, 1999.


CUMPSTON, J.S. Shipping Arrivals and Departures Sydney, 1788-1825.
Canberra: Roebuck, 1977 [Roebuck Society Publication No.22].

FARRINGTON, Anthony. A Biographical Index of East India Company Maritime Service Officers: 1600-1834. London: The British Library, 1999.

FARRINGTON, Anthony.Catalogue of East India Company Ships' Journals and Logs 1600-1834. London: The British Library, 1999.

LYON, David. The Sailing Navy List: all the ships of the Royal Navy - built, purchased and captured 1688 - 1860. London: Conway Maritime Press, 1993.

NICHOLSON, I. H. Gazetteer of Sydney Shipping 1788-1840. Canberra: Roebuck,1981. [Roebuck Society Publication No.26].

NICHOLSON, Ian Hawkins. Shipping Arrivals and Departures Tasmania, Vol.1,1803-1833. Canberra: Roebuck, 1983 [Roebuck Society Publication No.30].

WINFIELD, Rif. British Warships in the Age of Sail 1793-1817: design, construction, careers and fates. London: Chatham Publishing, 2005.


BLANCO, Richard L. "Henry Marshall (1775-1851) and the Health of the British Army." Medical History Vol. 14 No. 3 1970 pp.260-276.

HEWA , Soma "Dissent and Desire: Colonial Discourse and Medicine in Nineteenth Century Sri Lanka." Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Sri Lanka Vol. XLII 1997 pp.37-58.

KAUFMAN, Matthew H. Surgeons At War: medical arrangements for the treatment of the sick and wounded in the British Army during the late 18th and 19th centuries. Westport: Greenwood Press, 2001. [Contributions in Military Studoes, Number 205].

KENNEDY, Dane "The Perils of the Midday Sun: Climatic Anxieties in the Colonial Tropics." in Imperialism and the Natural World (ed.) John M. MacKenzie. Manchester: Manchester University Press, c. 1990 pp.118-140.

MAHROOF, M.M.M. "The English Doctor in Sri Lanka." The Indian Economic and Social History Review 35, 3 (1998) pp. 275-292.

Military History:


ADKIN, Mark,The Waterloo Companion: The Complete Guide to History's Most Famous Land Battle. London: Aurum Press, 2001.

HOLMES, Richard, Redcoat: the British soldier in the age of horse and musket. London: HarperCollins, 2001.

WICKREMESEKERA, Channa, Best Black Troops in the World: British perceptions and the making of the sepoy, 1746-1805. New Delhi: Manohar Publishers & Distributors, 2002.


BROHIER, R.L. The Golden Age of Military Adventure in Ceylon: an account of the Uva Rebellion 1817-1818. Colombo: 1933 [Limited ed. 150 copies].

COTTON, Julian James. "His Majesty's Regiment de Meuron." Calcutta Review Vol. 117 October 1903 [republished in the Journal of the Dutch Burgher Union of Ceylon Vol. LIV January-December 1964 pp.4-44].

FERRAR, M.L. Historical Record of the Green Howards XIXth Regiment: a history of the services of the 19th Regiment: now Alexandra, Princess of Wales' Own (Yorkshire Regiment) from its formation in 1688 to 1911. London: Eden Fisher, 1911.

FORTESQUE, J.W.,A History of the British Army. London: Macmillan, 1906. [see: Vol. IV. Part II 1789-1801].

HAYTHORNTHWAITE, Philip J., The Colonial Wars Source Book. London: Arms & Armour Press, 1995 [pp.150-154].

LAMB, John Bruce. "Funerals For the Officers, Arrack for the Men."Army Quarterly and Defence Journal. Vol. 102(2) 1972 pp.233-237.

de MEURON, Guy , Le Regiment Meuron 1781-1816. Lausanne: Le Forum Historique, c.1982.

PIERIS, P.E. Sinhale and the Patriots, 1815-1818. Colombo: Colombo Apothecaries Company, 1950.

POWELL, Geoffrey, The Kandyan Wars: the British Army in Ceylon 1803-1818. London: Leo Cooper, 1973.

WICKREMESEKERA, Channa, "Military Organisation in Pre-Modern Sri Lanka: The Army of the Kandyan Kings." South Asia: Journal of South Asian Studies. Volume XXVII Number 2 August 2004 pp.133-151


DEP, A.C. "Espionage and the Great Spy, Wattala Appu." Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, Sri Lanka Branch. Vol. 28, 1983-1984 pp.1-24.

Forts & Fortifications

CLEMENTS, William H. Towers of Strength : Martello Towers Worldwide. London: Pen & Sword Books / Leo Cooper, 1999.

History of the Public Works Department, Ceylon 1796 to 1896 Vol.II. Compiled by P.M. Bingham. Colombo: Goverment Printer, 1922.
[See: Chapter 1. J.P. Lewis 'The Old Forts and Military Posts of Ceylon'. pp.1-36].

KEUNEMAN, Herbert " The Forts of Ceylon. A discourse on fortification together with notes on the persisting Portuguese and Dutch forts of Ceylon." Times of Ceylon 1967 pp.66-78.

NELSON, William A. The Dutch Forts of Sri Lanka: the military monuments of Ceylon. Edinburgh: Canongate, 1984.

19th Regiment

POWELL, Geoffrey and POWELL, John,The History of the Green Howards: three hundred years of service.
Barnsley, S. Yorkshire: Leo Cooper, 2002. rev. ed.[First publ. 1992].
[see: Chapter 3 'The Kandyan Wars and Napoleon: 1793-1820' pp.57-78].

73rd Regiment

DALTON, Charles, Waterloo Roll Call: With Biographical Notes and Anecdotes Uckfield, East Sussex: Naval and Military Press, 2001. [Orig. publ. 1904].

Historical Record of the Seventy-Third Regiment: containing an account of the formation of the Regiment from the period of its being raised as the Second Battalion of the Forty-Second Highlanders in 1780 and of its subsequent services to 1851. Compiled by Richard Cannon. London: Parker, Furnivall & Parker,1851.

LAGDEN, Alan and SLY, John, The 2/73rd at Waterloo: including a roll of all ranks present with biographical notes.
Brightlingsea: Privately Printed 1998 [2nd ed.]

STEWART, Capt. John, The Royal Highland Regiment. The Black Watch, formerly 42nd and 73rd Foot. Medal Roll 1801-1911. Uckfield, Sussex: Naval & Military Press, 2001 [Reprint].



DELORAINE, Ferdinand "Old Badulla." Dutch Burgher Union Journal Vol. 46 No.2/3 [1956] pp. 79-87.


BROHIER, R.L. The Changing Face of Colombo (1505-1972): covering the Portuguese, Dutch, and British periods. With Addendum by Ismeth Raheem Views of Colombo, 1518-1900. Colombo: Isidunu Publication, 2000 [2nd ed.]
[Originally publ: Colombo: Lake House Investments, 1984].

COLIN-THOME, Percy, "Governor Van Angelbeek and the Capitulation of the Dutch Settlements in Ceylon to the British (1796)." Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Sri Lanka Vol. 24 (1978-1979) pp. 20-48.


Sri Lanka Department of Archaeology Report on the Joint Sri Lanka-Australia-Netherlands Galle Harbour Project 1996-1997. (eds.) Jeremy Green, Somasiri Devendra and Robert Parthesius.
Freemantle: Australian National Centre of Excellence for Maritime Archaeology' 1998 [Western Australian Maritme Museum Special Publication No. 4].

ROBERTS, Norah, Galle As Quiet As Sleep. Galle: N. Roberts, 1993.

WAGENAAR, Lodewijk, Galle VOC-vestiging in Ceylon. Beschrijving van een koloiale samenleving aan de vooravond van de Singalese opstand tegen het Nederlandse gezag, 1760. Amsterdam: de Bataafsche Leeuw, 1994.


DUNCAN, James S. The City as Text: The Politics of Landscape Interpretation in the Kandyan Kingdom. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1990.

KARUNARATNE, Nihal, Kandy, Past and Present (1474-1998 A.D.). Colombo: Central Cultural Fund, Ministry of Religious & Cultural Affairs, 1999.


DEWARAJA, Lorna, Sri Lanka Through French Eyes. Colombo: Institute of Fundamental Studies, 1989.

GRAHAM, Gerald S. Great Britain in the Indian Ocean: a study of maritime enterprise 1810-1850. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1967 [see: "The Rise and Fall of Trincomalee" pp. 305-328].

NEVILL, Hugh, "Notes on Military History of Trincomalie." Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Sri Lanka Vol. XXXVIII 1993/1994 pp.35-126.

de SILVA, D.G.B., "Hugh Nevill's 'Notes on Military History of Trincomalie' ". Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Sri Lanka Vol. XXXVIII 1993/1994 pp.1-34.

THOMAS, G.P. The History of Trincomalee. Colombo: Times of Ceylon, 1940.


WHITE, Herbert, Manual of the Province of Uva. Colombo: Ceylon Government Printer, 1893.

Additional Sources

Journal of the Dutch Burgher Union [1908-1909; 1926]

Military Terms
Place Names
Related Topics
73rd Regiment

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