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1799 Letter
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Place Names


 Place Names

Seringapatam & Environs

Agrar: located on the northern shore side of the Cauvery River, opposite where the river branches into the north and south arms. Strategically important position for directing enfilading fire on the north-west corner of the fortress. Hart's Post was established here.
Bangalore Gate: heavily fortified entrance gate located on the eastern side of the fortress.
Carighaut Hill: high vantage point overlooking Seringapatam from the north-east
Darya Daulat Bagh: Tipu's summer place. The outer walls are adorned with pictures, including a representation of the defeat of Colonel Baillie at Conjeveram in 1780; Haidar Ali and Tipu Sultan as they appeared in public processions; and numerous figures of rajahs and officials of Mysore. [See: IMAGE]
Delhi Gate: entrance gate located on the northern side of the fortress. [See: IMAGES]
Dungeon: bomb-proof shelter in the northern face of the fort. Popular tradition refers to it as the 'Dungeon' where British prisoners were held - highly doubtful. Far more likely to have been used as a powder magazine and armoury. [See: IMAGE]
Elephant Gate: [see: Mysore Gate].
Ganjam (or Shahar Ganjam): a village at the eastern end of the island of Seringapatam. As an outer suburb of the fortress it was dismantled by Tipu in 1799 in expectation that the British army would occupy and make use of the area as they had done in 1792. Re-built after the capture of Seringapatam.
Gumbaz: mausoleum containing the remains of Tipu and his parents.
Hart's Post: artillery emplacement on the north bank of the Cauvery River, adjacent to where General Stuart's Bombay Army was encamped.
Hoally Gate : gateway in the northern inner rampart wall where Tipu was killed. The wall and gateway were demolished in the first decade after the British occupation of the fortress.
Jibi Gate: small sallyport gate in the northern wall, leading down to the Cauvery River. [See: IMAGE]
Lal Bagh Gardens: stately gardens that once surrounded the palace located at the eastern end of the island of Srirangapatna. Originally noted for its groves of cyprus and fruit trees, as well as for being a nursery of the agricultural produce of Mysore.
Lal Bagh Palace: mud-brick two-storey palace adjacent to the Gumbaz mausoleum. Unfortunately, the building quickly fell into disrepair after the 1799 assault despite some initial restoration work by Colonel Wellesley. Later its wooden pillars and framework were salvaged for use in St. Stephen's Church in Ootacamund.
Masjid-E-Ala Mosque (or Jama Masjid Mosque): cream-coloured mosque located at the eastern end of the fortress, adjacent to the Bangalore Gate. [See: IMAGES]
Mysore Gate: main entrance gate to the fortress of Srirangapatna, located on southern face; heavily fortified, with a double-sectioned passageway between the inner and outer ramparts. Originally the entrance to this gate was protected by a drawbridge (as was the Bangalore Gate). [See: IMAGES]
Pedghah (also Eadgah) Redoubt: abandoned fortification overlooking the north bank of the Cauvery River.
Powder Mills: strategically located on the junction of the north and south arm of the Cauvery River. Directly opposite the section of the walls of Seringapatam selected for forcing a breach. The scene of heavy and protracted fighting.
Somalinga Katte Gate: small sallyport gate in the south-western rampart wall leading down to the ghat beside the Cauvery River. [See: IMAGES]
Sri Ranganathaswamy Temple: Hindu temple at the western end of the island of Srirangapatna. [See: IMAGE]
Sultanpettah: village and forested tope near Seringapatam. Scene of Colonel Arthur Wellesley's (later Duke of Wellington) first military defeat, during a night attack while in command of the 33rd Regiment.
Water Gate: small entrance/exit gate in the northern face of the fortress, facing the Cauvery River. Scene of heavy fighting on 4 May 1799 and in close proximity to the gate in the inner rampart wall [see: Hoally Gate] where the body of Tipu was eventually discovered by Major Alexander Allan and other British officers, including Major-General David Baird and Colonel Arthur Wellesley. [See: IMAGES]

South India

Present day placenames are indicated in CAPITALS inside square brackets [****].


Arakeery: located approximately 9 miles east of Seringapatam.


Bangalore: located 221 miles from Madras and 77 miles from Seringapatam.
Bombay: [MUMBAI]


Calliard [also Calliaud]: town on the route from Cannanore to Seringapatam. Located on the Malabar coast, 20 miles northeast of Cannanore.
Cancanhilly or Kaunkanhully: located south of Bangalore.
Cannanore or Cananore: [KANNUR].
Cauvery River:
Caveriporam (also Coveraporam): located in southern Mysore providing access through the mountains (towards Trichinopoly). Line of march for General Floyd.
Chitaldroog: hill fort located 151 miles north-west of Seringapatam.
Cochin: [KOCHI]
Coimbatore: [KOYAMPUTTUR]
Cotiote: [KOTTAYAM}
Coorg or Coorga: [KODAGU]. Small mountain kingdom/hill-state to the west of the tableland of Mysore, in which the the source of the Cauvery (Kaveri) River is located. Originally annexed by Tipu Sultan.


Dindigul: [TINTUKKAL]



French Rocks or Errode: [HIRODI]. Rocky outcrop 5 miles north of Seringapatam on the Mysore-Nagamangala road, the highest point is 2,882 feet above sea level. Originally the location for the garrison of French troops in the service of Tipu. [See: IMAGE]






Lakshadweep Islands: a group of islands located 200-300km off the coast of Kerala in the Arabian Sea; includes Cannanore Island, Minicoy Island, Amindivi Islands, and Laccadive Islands.


Maddur or Madoor River: river rising in central Mysore near Tumkur and runs almost due south until it joins the Cauvery River below the Cauvery Falls on the borders of Mysore and Madras. The Maddur is about 36 miles north-east of Seringapatam.
Madikeri: [see: MERCARA]
Madras: [CHENNAI]
Mallavelli or Malvilly: town situated 45 km (28 miles) east of Mysore [12° 23 N. lat., 77° 7' E.]. Two miles from the present town is the site of the battle between Tipu and General Harris' Grand Army on 27 March 1799. A significant defeat for Tipu.
Mangalore: [MANGALUR] principal civil and military station in Canara. Adjacent to the sea at the junction of the Nethravathi and Balore rivers. The town and garrison overlooked an extensive backwater with port facilities. Site of a protracted siege by Tipu in 1783-1784 after the destruction of General Mathews and his army. Under the leadership of Colonel John Campbell the British and sepoy troops resisted all Tipu's attacks - and eventually were permitted to surrender with full military honours and returned safely to Bombay.
Mercara: [MADIKERI] capital of Kodagu (Coorg).



Oudh: [AWADH]
Outradroog: hill fort. Captured by Colonel Stuart in December 1791 prior to the first siege of Seringapatam.


Periapatam or Periyapatam: [PIRIYAPATNA]. Located at the western border of Mysore on the strategic trunk road from Seringapatam to Mercara and Cannanore.
Poodicherrum Ghaut or Pudiyacharan: steep mountain pass leading from Cannanore (on the Malabar Coast) though Irukkur to Virajendrapet (Coorg) and into Mysore. Also referred to as the Heggala Ghat.
Pyché or Pychy: [PALASSI]:


Quilon [KOLLAM]: One of the oldest towns on the west coast of India and among the great ports of the Malabar coast. It was an important trading port with China. Captured by the Dutch from the Portuguese in 1653. In 1741 it was beseiged by Travancore. British troops were garrisoned there in the early C19th.



Savendroog (also Savandurga): strong hill fort located 20 miles south-west of Bangalore. It is an enormous mass of granite rising 4,024 feet above sea level. The summit consists of two peaks separated by a chasm. The heavily fortified citadel was first captured by the British under Cornwallis in 1791.
Sedaseer (also Seedaseer): [SIDDESHWARA]. Site of a six-hour battle on 6 March 1799 between the Bombay Army (advancing from Cannanore) and Tipu's army (from Seringapatam). A hard-fought battle in densely-wooded and hilly terrain. British forces eventually prevailed, with heavy losses to Tipu.
Seedapore: [SIDDAPURA].
Seringapatam: [SRIRANGAPATTANA],SRIRANGAPATNAM or SRIRANGAPATTANAM]. Tipu Sultan's fortified island capital of Mysore.
Sosilla or Sosale: a large village on the left bank of the Cauvery river near its confluence with the Kabanni (Caupani) river, approximately 15 miles east of Seringapatam.
Sultan's Battery: [SULTTANBATTERI]


Tanjore: [THANJAVUR]
Tellicherry [THALASERRI - Kerala]: located 21km (13 miles) from Cannanore. Town and fort overlooking the sea. The East India Company established a factory here in 1683 for the pepper and cardamom trade. Besieged by Mysorean troops in 1782, siege raised by troops from Bombay. The fort lies close to the shore on the north side of the town. It is a square compact laterite construction with corner bastions.
Tranquebar: [TARANGAMBADI - Tamil Nadu] located 35km (22 miles) north of Negapatam at the delta of the Kaveri River; established as a colony by the Danish East India Company in 1620. Originally the small fishing village and trading post of Tarangambadi, renamed 'Tranquebar' or 'Trankebar' in Danish.
Travancore: [TIRUVITAMKUR]
Trichinopoly: [TIRUCHIRAPALLI]


Veerajunderpet or Virajendrapet: name of a town in Coorg 18 miles south-east of Mercara; founded by Virarajendra Vodeya, Raja of Coorg, in 1792.

Vellore: town and fort sitauted 129km (80 miles) west from Madras and approx. 24km (15 miles) west from Arcot. After the fall of Seringapatam in 1799 Tipu's family were detained here. The subsequent mutiny at Vellore in 1806 was attributed to them, but it was more likely due to the orders of Sir John Cradock prohibiting the wearing of caste marks and beards. Tipu's family was exiled to Calcutta to prevent any further unrest in the region.