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Tuesday 6th. Novr. 1810 —
I set out this afternoon at 6,O'Clock on my Tour of Inspection to the interior of the Colony, accompanied by Mrs. M. Capts. Antill & Cleaveland, Dr. Redfern, Ensign Jno. Maclaine Mr. Meehan Acting Surveyor. —

Macquarie, Lachlan. Memoranda & Related Papers. 22 December 1808-14 July 1823.
Original held in the Mitchell Library, Sydney.
ML Ref: A772 29f. [Microfilm Reel CY301 Frame #36].

Journal of a Tour of Governor Macquarie's first Inspection of the Interior of the Colony Commencing on Tuesday the 6th. of Novr. 1810.

Tuesday 6th. Novr. 1810 —
At 6. P.M. I set out from Sydney, accompanied by Mrs. Macquarie in the Carriage, and arrived at ½ past 7. P.M. at Parramatta – distance 16 miles. —

Wednesday 7th. —
At 6. a.m. Set out on Horseback, accompanied by Mrs. M. Capt. Antill and Mr. Meehan for George's River, and arrived at Mr. Moore's House at 8 O'Clock, having crossed the River in a Boat opposite to Mr. Moore's House, where Mrs. Moore had Breakfast ready prepared for us. — Our Horses were sent up the River to cross at a Ford three miles above where we crossed.

Between 10 and 12 OClock, we all set out in a Boat, Dr. Redfern having previously joined, and accompanied by Mr. Moore, to view and survey the Ground intended for the new Township, which lies about a mile higher up the River above Mr. Moore's on the Left Bank of it. — We landed near Mr. Laycock's House, and having surveyed the Ground and found it in every respect eligible and fit for the purpose, I determined to erect a Township on it, and named it Liverpool in honor of the Earl of that Title – now the Secretary of State for the Colonies. — The Acting Surveyor Mr. Meehan was at the same [time] directed to mark out the Ground for the Town, with a Square in the Center thereof, for the purpose of having a Church hereafter erected within it. —

After walking over the Ground for the new Town, we returned to the Boat, in which we proceeded for two miles higher up the River, until our progress was stopt [sic] by Trees fallen into the Bed of it. – We then returned to Mr. Moore's House again, and leaving Mrs. M. there, we set out at 2 P.M. on Horse-back to view the Farms situated along the Right Bank of the River to the Southward of Mr. Moore's and towards Botany Bay. — Some of the Farms we passed through were very well cultivated and had promising Fields of Wheat. — We ended our Tour for this day at a Farm belonging to Dr. Mc.Callum and occupied by a man of the name of Wells, being a ride of about 7 or 8 miles along the River, and then returned by a short way across the Country to Mr. Moore's House of only a Couple of Miles, and arrived at ½ past 4 O'Clock there. — Mrs. Moore had an excellent Dinner prepared for us. —

Thursday 8th. —
It rained very heavy all last Night and continued so to do the greater part of this day. — At 2. P.M. it cleared up a little, and I set out on Horseback, accompanied by Mr. Moore, Dr. Redfern, Capt. Antill and Mr. Meehan, to view the Farms in the Minto District and to the Westward of George's River. — We crossed the Ford 3 miles above Mr. Moore's, and passing through Guise's Farm, Dr. Throsbey's [sic], Mr. Meehan's, Mr. Lewin's, Mr. Brookes's, Dr. Townson's &c. to Mr. Thompson's Farm called St. Andrews, we halted a little while there to look at this excellent Farm belonging to our late worthy Friend, which we found in excellent order and in a most improving flourishing state. — This and Dr. Townson's Farm are by far the finest soil and best Pasturage I have yet seen in the Colony – the Grounds are beautiful, and bounded by a large Creek of Brackish Water called Bunbury Curran. — In this Excursion, I saw some Fields of fine promising Wheat, and several numerous Flocks of Sheep and Herds of Horned Cattle. – From St. Andrews, we returned straight home to Mr. Moore's, where we arrived about 6 O'Clock in the Evening, after a very pleasant ride of Twenty miles going and coming. — It rained a little but not to wet us much. —

Friday 9th.—
At 6. a.m. I set out to see the remaining Farms in the Banks Town District towards Botany Bay along George's River, and on Harris's Creek. — After we had looked at the southernmost Farm on the latter Creek, we crossed the Country with the intention of returning home by the upper part of George's River in a South West direction; but missing our way we lost ourselves in the Woods and wandered about in a boundless Forest for upwards of three hours without knowing where we were. — At length we stumbled on the River, and got home a good deal tired about ½ past 10 O'Clock; finding Mrs. M. and Mrs. Moore waiting impatiently for our return. — Breakfast was ready for us and we soon got over all our fatigues.

I had sent Mr. Meehan early in the morning to lay out the Ground for the Town of Liverpool, which deprived us of his Services as a Guide, and good honest Mr. Moore had never before explored that part of the Country in which we had lost ourselves this morning. — We must have rode at least 20 miles before Breakfast.

After resting ourselves and our Horses for a Couple of Hours, I set out to explore the remaining Farms in the Minto District, and to look once more at the scite [sic] of the intended Town of Liverpool, leaving Mrs. M. to follow and meet me in the afternoon at Dwyer's Farm along with Capt. Antill; it being our intention to return in the Evening again to Parramatta, and therefore now took leave of our kind Hostess Mrs. Moore, from whose I set out with Mr. Moore &c. &c. at 1 O'Clock, crossing the River in the Boat to meet our Horses on the opposite Bank. —

We proceeded first to Liverpool, where having marked out the Square for the Church &c. &c. I continued my Tour to the adjoining Farms belonging to Holt, Burn, Develin &c. &c. and ended it at Dwyer's, where I found Mrs. M. and Capt. Antill waiting for us. — Here we took leave of our worthy Guide & conductor Mr. Moore, who returned home, and we pursued our way to Parramatta, where we arrived at ½ past 5 O'Clock in the Evening; and Mr. Broughton, who had come to me on business to George's River, dined with us.

Saturday 10th. —
I made an Excursion this day to visit the different Farms in the Districts of the Ponds, Field of Mars, and Eastern Farms, being accompanied part of the way in the Carriage by Mrs. M. whom I left at Mr. Marsden's Farm of One-Tree-Hill, whilst I rode on Horseback to see the intermediate ones lying between that and Kissing Point, which was the extent of my Tour this day. — I was accompanied on this Excursion by the Revd. Mr. Marsden, Mr. Blaxland &c. &c. – I went with the latter Gentleman to see his Farm the Brush, which is a very snug good Farm and very like an English one in point of comfort and convenience. — I looked at a great many Farms this day, some of which were well cultivated and promise tolerable good Crops of Wheat. — But the Houses in general are miserably bad, and their Inhabitants poorly clothed & poorly fed. — We returned home to Dinner between 5 & 6 O'Clock and Mr. Blaxland dined with us. —

Sunday 11th.
Went to Church with Mrs. M. and Mrs. Bent, who with her Husband had come last night to live with us here for a few days. — There was a numerous and respectable Congregation at Church and Mr. Marsden gave us a very good Sermon. —

Monday 12th. —
I rode out early this morning to look at the new Road lately begun between Parramatta and the Hawkesbury. — I was accompanied by Dr. Redfern and Horrax the Contractor of the Road, and after going on for 3 miles of it, we returned home to Breakfast, much pleased with the new line of Road to the Hawkesbury as far as it is finished. —

After Breakfast I accompanied Mrs. M. and Mrs. Bent in the Carriage as far as Dr. Wentworth's Farm in the District of Liberty Plains 7 miles from Parramatta, and afterwards to Mr. Blaxland's Salt Pans in the same District near the Flats, returning home to Dinner. — Mrs. Bayly and Mrs. Birch, and Mr. & Mrs. Marsden dined with us today. — I felt myself very bilious all this day, and therefore took some medicine at Night on going to Bed. —

Tuesday 13th. —
I remained at Home all this day, being rather indisposed. — Mr. Campbell the Secretary and Capt. Glenholme came up from Sydney this afternoon on a visit to us and dined with us. —

Wednesday 14th. —
At Noon I set out in the Carriage along with Mrs. M. and Mrs. Bent, and accompanied by Secry. Campbell, Mr. Hassall, Dr. Redfern, Capt. Antill & Mr. Blaxland to view the Farms in the Districts of the Field of Mars, Northern Boundary, Dundas, and Baulkham-Hills. — We rode through a great number of Farms in this excursion, ending it with those of Baulkham Hills – at which last Place we halted for a little while at the House of Mr. Mc.Dougall one of the most respectable Settlers in that District. — The Farms I visited were in general in good order and well cultivated; but the Crops did not look well, and the Habitations of the Settlers were in general miserably bad and their own Dress still worse. – We returned home to Dinner by the Castle-hill Road after a ride of about 20 miles in this day's Excursion. —

Thursday 15th. —
I sent off our Servants and Baggage this morning for the Cow Pastures, in two Carts, escorted by Serjt. Whalan of the Body Guard. —

At 12 O'Clock I set out on an Excursion to visit some of the Farms which I had not yet seen in the Field of Mars lying on the East side of Parramatta River; being accompanied by Mr. Bent, Secretary Campbell, Dr. Redfern, Capt. Antill, and Mr. Meehan. — The principal Farms we visited were those of Macdonald, Ramsay, and Archer and Connor, all prettily situated; the three former on the Banks of the River and the latter retired within the Forest. — We all returned home to Dinner after a ride of about 12 miles in this day's Excursion. —

Friday 16th. Novr. 1810 ! —
At 6,O'Clock this morning Mrs. Macquarie and myself set out in the Carriage from Parramatta for the Cow-Pastures. — We were accompanied on this Tour by Captains Antill and Cleaveland, our nephew Ensign Jno. Maclaine, Doctor Redfern, Mr. Meehan the Acting Surveyor, and Mr. Gregory Blaxland; and on the Road near Prospect Hill, we were joined by John Warlby [sic] Free Settler there, and whom I had engaged to attend me as a Guide in the Cow-Pastures. — Serjeant Whalan and three Troopers accompanied us as a Guard. — Passing through the Orphan-School Farm, the Government Stock-Yard close to the Cabramatta Creek, and Messrs. Riley's and Kent's Farms, we arrived at the Government Hut close to the East Bank of the Nepean River at Half past 9,O'Clock, being a distance of 26 measured miles in three Hours and a half. — The Country through which we passed between Parramatta and the Nepean was generally an open Forest, a tolerable good Soil, and the Road pretty good. — There being very little Water in the River at this time, we crossed it at the usual Ford in our Carriage with great ease and safety; – and we found our Servants, with the two Carts containing our Baggage, ready waiting for us on the opposite Bank of the River; having one of the small Tents ready Pitched for us to Breakfast in. — It came on a Drizzling Rain as soon as we had crossed the River but which did not continue long. — We Breakfasted immediately, and set out immediately afterwards on our Journey to the Place we intended to Halt at and make our Head Quarters. — We passed through Mr. Mc.Arthur's first Farm, called by the natives "Benkennie", and arrived at our Halting Place, called "Bundie", at half past 1,O'Clock in the afternoon, being Six Miles in a South West Direction from the Ford. — We came in the Carriage all the way, through a very fine rich Country and open Forest, and on the way to our Ground we met two or three small Parties of the Cow-Pastures Natives – the Chief of whom in this Part is named Koggie; who with his wife Nantz, and his friends Bootbarrie, Young Bundle, Billy, and their respective Wives, came to visit us immediately on our arrival at Bundie.

The Servants and Baggage did not reach the Ground till after 3 O'Clock in the afternoon and immediately on their arrival our Tents were Pitched and our little Camp was formed on a beautiful Eminence near a Lagoon of fine fresh Water – the Tents fronting the South West – in a very fine open Forest within about 3 miles of the foot of Mount Taurus – and Four Mount Hunter; the latter being to the Northward, and the former to the Southward of us.

At 5. P.M. we sat down Eight at Table to a most comfortable Dinner; Mrs. M. tho' so young a Campaigner having provided every requisite to make our Tour easy, pleasant, and happy – and we all feel much pleased with one-another – and with our present manner of Life. Being all a little tired, we went early to Bed this Night, after placing Fires around us, and a Watch to guard us from the Wild Cattle.

Saturday 17th. —
We got up pretty early – and during the Night we heard the Wild Cattle Bellowing in the Woods. – Mr. Blaxland and Warlby went out early in the morning and shot a Wild Bull, which was brought in to Camp for the use of Servants and our other numerous attendants. —

Having Breakfasted, we set out at half past 10 O'Clock on an Excursion to explore the Country to the Southward and Westward as far as Stone-Quarry-Creek, distant about Ten miles from our Camp. – We all went on Horseback, some part of the way being too hilly, and the Forest too close to admit of Travelling Comfortably in a Carriage. — In the course of this Day's Excursion, which was through a beautiful rich Country consisting of Open Forest and Hills and Dales, we met with several numerous Herds of the Wild Cattle, which we approached very nearly and hunted down Five Calves, three of which being Male ones were sent Home to be reserved for Veal for our Table; but the remaining two, which were Female ones I gave as Presents to John Warlby our Guide, and Wm. Cosgrove, a Free Man, Servant to Mr. Blaxland, to bring up and rear on their own account respectively.

Mr. Meehan in hunting the Wild Cattle had the misfortune to be thrown from his Horse and dislocated his Arm; but Doctor Redfern having come shortly after to his assistance, immediately set his arm again, so as to secure his still preserving and recovering the use of it. —

On our way to Stone-Quarry-Creek and about Six Miles South West from Bundie, we had a view of the Nepean River and remained for some time on the Banks of it, – which are very steep and stony on both sides. — We then pursued our Excursion to Stone Quarry Creek, crossed it, and travelled about a quarter of a mile on the West side of it; after which we recrossed it and returned home by nearly the same route we went; crossing both times the Quiraway Creek in a very pretty part of the Country. — The Nepean where we saw it this day ran North West and South East. — We got back to our little Camp at Bundie at 5 O'Clock in the Evening with keen appetites for Dinner and highly pleased with our Excursion. —

Sunday 18th. —
Being rather a little fatigued after our Excursion of yesterday, we took a good long sleep and did not Breakfast till Nine O'Clock this morning; and while we were at it, we were visited by Mrs. Mc.Arthur, who had come the Evening before to the Cow Pastures to look after her Farms and fine numerous Flocks of Sheep in this part of the Country. — As we asked Mrs. Mc.Arthur to dine with us today, she expressed a desire to ride about the Country with us during this day's Excursion, which was of course readily assented to. — We accordingly set out on Horseback from Bundie at 11,O'Clock to visit Mount Taurus and Mount Hunter, both of which are close in the vicinity of our little Camp; the former being about 4 miles S.W. of it, and the latter about 6 miles N. West of it. — We first ascended Mount Taurus, riding to the very top of it, from which we had a very fine extensive Prospect of the whole of circumjacent Country. — From Mount Taurus we proceeded by a long Ridge of Hills to Mount Hunter, and on the way thither met two or three Herds of the Wild Cattle, which allowed us to come very near them; and one of the Herds at first made directly at us but were scared away from us by the noise and shouting of our Guide and other Attendants. The view from the summit of Mount Hunter was also very fine and extensive; but I confess I was much disappointed with respect to the Height of both it and Mount Taurus, which hardly deserve to be called Mountains, and would only be classed as Hills in most other Country. — We returned home. by a different route from Mount Hunter, through a fine open Forest, to our Tents at Bundie, where we arrived about 2,O'Clock; and after resting ourselves there a little while and taking some refreshment, we all set out to see Manangle a fine extensive Farm of 2000 acres belonging to Mr. Walter Davidson, Situated on the Banks of the Nepean, and distant only about three miles from our Camp South East of it. — It is a beautiful Situation and excellent rich Land for both Tillage and Pasture, with a fine large Lagoon in the Center of it, which is called Manangle, and is the native name of this Farm. — After looking at the River Nepean here and viewing the Farm, we returned to Camp again at 5,O'Clock to Dinner, which we found ready for us. — This Day's Excursion was highly gratifying, and I saw a great deal of fine rich Country every where I travelled. — Mrs. Mc.Arthur left us after Dinner and returned to her own Farm at Benkennie. In the Evening Koggie, the Native Chief of the Cow-Pasture Tribe, and his wife and half a dozen more Natives, favored us with an Extraordinary sort of Dance after their own manner, and with which we were all very much pleased. – They were treated a Glass of Spirits each, before they began the Dance, with which they were much pleased and which had a wonderful good effect on their spirits in performing their Dance. — The following are the names of the Natives (not including some children) who honored us with their company and attendance during our stay at Bundie: – Vizt. – Koggie and his two wives Nantz and Mary, Bootbarrie & his wife Mary, Young Bundle, Mandagerry, Jindle and Bill: Total 9 grown up Persons, besides 4 or 5 Children of different ages. —

During this day's Excursion we were attended by some of the Natives, one of whom amused us very much by climbing up a high Tree to catch a Guanna, [sic] which he did in a very dextrous manner. In the course of our morning ride we were also much entertained with a Fight between some wild Bulls of two different Herds, which had accidentally met in consequence of being chased by some of our attendants.

Monday 19th. —
Having seen all the Land in this Neighbourhood and also several different Herds (amounting in all perhaps to about 600 Head) of the Wild Cattle, I determined on breaking up our little Camp at Bundie this morning after Breakfast and recrossing the Nepean, after viewing the Land to the Northward of Mr. Mc.Arthur's Farms on this same side of the River. — We all set out accordingly at half past 9,O'Clock, having left our Baggage and Servants to follow us leisurely to the River. We called at Benkennie on Mrs. Mc.Arthur, with whom we sat for a little while in a small miserable Hut, and then pursued our way to the Ford, where we arrived at 11,O'Clock; and having sent the Carriage across, we mounted our Horses to look at the Country in this Neighbourhood for a few miles to the Northward. — We rode through some tolerable good Land but generally very inferior to that to the Southward; – Our Excursion extended only to Hunter's Creek, about 4 miles to the North West of the Ford, and from thence we came back by a different route. — No Wild Cattle were seen in this ride, tho' it was evident from their traces and Dung that they had been grazing lately in this part of the Country. — We got back to the Ford at Half past 1,O'Clock and found our Servants and Baggage just arrived there and in the act of crossing it; which they took a great while in performing, one of the Carts having broken down in the middle of the River. — Having marked out the Ground for our Camp on the East side of the River, where we had resolved to halt for a Night; I set out, accompanied by Capt. Antill, and my Guide Warlby, [sic] to explore the Country to the Southward on the Right Bank of the Nepean River; – leaving Mrs. Macquarie in Camp, with the rest of our Suite excepting Mr. Blaxland, who took his leave of us to return home as soon as we crossed the River. — It was 2,O'Clock when I set out, and we rode at a pretty smart rate for an hour and a half, which brought us to a part of the Country called by the natives Nowenong, immediately opposite to Manangle Mr. Davidson's Farm, at which we had been yesterday; – and from this Point I rode along the Bank of the River for about a mile farther up, to where the Bed of it becomes much wider, but the Right Bank begins to be rocky; and it appearing very rough and barren as far as I could see along this side of the River and for a great way to the Eastward of it, I did not think it necessary to extend my Excursion farther to the Southward; the more especially as my further progress was unexpectedly interrupted by a deep Gully or Creek extending from the River in an Easterly direction. The distance I rode from the Ford to this Point of the River, I calculated to be about Seven Miles, having been compelled to travel by a very circuitous route, owing to the numerous Swamps, Creeks, and Lagoons we were obliged to wind round in the course of our ride. — The Country I rode through was generally very indifferent, and unfit for Tillage, but some of it is good Pasturage, and we met some Herds of Black Cattle and some Flocks of Sheep belonging to Mr. Robert Campbell of Sydney grazing in Nowenong not far from the Banks of the River. — In going to the River we passed close to the Foot of the High Hill of Bajelling leaving it on our left, and we returned nearly the same way to Camp, but by a shorter route to avoid the Bendings of the River, Lagoons, and Swamps we had to wind round in coming to Nowenong. — We arrived at our Tents which we found ready Pitched at Kirboowallie (the Native name of the Country near the Ford over the Nepean) at half past Four O'Clock after a ride of at least 12 miles to and from Nowenong. — We found Mrs. M. and the rest of our Party all well in Camp, and a good Dinner ready waiting for us, to which we all sat down with very keen appetites. — After dinner Mrs. M. and myself took a walk along the Road leading from the River to enjoy the cool of the Evening and the tranquil scenes of the Forest around us! —

Tuesday 20th.—
It rained a good deal last Night, but our Tents being water-tight, we did not get wet ,and slept very comfortably. — It continued also to rain all this morning, which prevented our moving so soon as we intended. — Whilst we were at Breakfast we received a visit from Mrs. Mc.Arthur, who had just crossed the River from the Cow Pastures on her way back to Parramatta. — The Rain having ceased we broke up our Camp, and set out on our Journey at Half past 11,O'Clock, for St. Andrews, the Seat and Estate of the late Andw. Thompson Esqr. on the Bunbury Curran Creek, where we propose passing a couple of days for the purpose of exploring that particular part of the Country, as well as the lands lying between Bunburry Curran and George's River. Mrs. M. and myself went in the Carriage as far as Mr. Riley's Farm, six miles from the Ford, on the left of the Road from the Nepean to Parramatta; and leavingMrs. M. in the Carriage at this Place, I mounted my Horse and set out at 1. P.M. to explore the Country for some miles on either side of the South Creek; being accompanied by Capts. Antill & Cleaveland, Ensn. Maclaine, Dr. Redfern, Warlby [sic] the Guide and two Dragoons. — We travelled in a westerly direction first for about Four miles, crossing the South Creek about a mile to the Westward of where we left the Carriage, through the Minto and Cooks Districts; thence about Five miles, nearly in a Northerly direction, through the Bringelly District, till our further progress was arrested by meeting with a deep Creek that runs East and West, and falls into the South Creek at its eastern extremity; we followed this Creek till its junction with the South Creek, which last we crossed a little above its confluence with the other, travelling first in an Easterly direction and afterwards in a South East direction for about Six miles through the Cabramatta District. The Country we first travelled through in Cook's District was very hilly and poor Land, neither good for Tillage nor Pasturage. — The Land I rode through in the Bringelly District was rather of a superior Quality and not so hilly as the other, but far from being very good Land for Cultivation. After recrossing the South Creek into the Cabramatta District, the Land changes much for the better; and near the confluence of the two creeks, on the East side of the South Creek, it is most excellent for either Tillage or Pasturage for a considerable extent along the Creek – perhaps for about three miles –; being generally very Level for a quarter of a mile from the Creek but gradually rising at that distance to gentle Eminences fit for the Buildings & Corn Yards of Settlers; the Plains on the Banks of the Creek being frequently flooded in the rainy Seasons. — After surveying these Lands, we directed our steps again to Mr. Riley's Farm, where we arrived at 4. P.M. after a ride of about Fifteen miles, finding Mrs. M. waiting for us where we left her. — We then set out immediately for St. Andrews in the Carriage, the rest of our Party attending us on Horseback; and after a very pleasant easy ride of about 5 miles from Mr. Riley's Farm, arrived at Mr. Thompson's House at St. Andrews about a Quarter before 5 O'Clock in the Evening; our Servants and Baggage having arrived there at the same time with ourselves. — Mrs. M. was much pleased with the beautiful situation of this Farm, the Picturesque scenes arround [sic] it, and the great order and regularity in which the worthy deceased owner of it had left it in, notwithstanding he had had possession of it only for about 8 or nine months previous to his much lamented Death. He had built an excellent Farm House with suitable Offices, Garden, Stock Yards &c. &c. felled a great Quantity of Timber and cleared and enclosed a Field of Ten acres for Corn, a great part of which had already been sown. — His Horned Cattle consisting of about Ninety Head, and his sheep consisting of about Fourteen Hundred, we found in very high order and most excellent condition as I ever saw any Cattle in, in any Country I have visited. — We found the Farm-House very clean and in very neat order; the overseer, Joseph Ward and his Wife, being a very decent Couple and seemingly very careful of their late good Master's interests. — Here we were plentifully supplied with Mutton, Fowls, Butter, Milk, Eggs, and Vegetables; and could not help making the melancholy reflection how much more happy we should have been and felt ourselves here had the kind and valuable deceased owner of this Estate been alive on it now to receive and entertain us under his hospitable Roof! — This reflection affected Mrs. M. and myself deeply – for we both had a most sincere and affectionate esteem for our good and most lamented departed friend Andrew Thompson! — But alas! how vain are our regrets! — He is lost to the world and to us forever – and we must console ourselves with the well grounded hope that he is happier now than if he had remained amongst us! —

We sat down at half past Six OClock to a most excellent Dinner at St. Andrews, and drank to the memory of our lamented deceased Friend Andrew Thompson! —

Wednesday 21st. —
I set out this morning immediately after Breakfast, accompanied by Mrs. M. and the rest of our Party on Horseback, to explore the Country to the Southward and Westward of Mr. Thompson's Estate, and those Farms granted to several Individuals by the late Usurped Government. — We first rode through those Farms and for about two miles to the South West of them, and found the Land in general very good for both Tillage and Pasturage, and well watered. — Having rode about six miles in this direction, Mrs. M. returned Home attended by Mr. Meehan (as her Guide) and Capt. Antill, and one of the Dragoons. — I prosecuted my ride with the rest of the Party for about three miles in a Westerly direction, from where we fell in with the first Rocks, towards the River Nepean – and the Land still continued very good during the whole of that extent. — I met with some fine Herds of Cattle belonging to Mr. Campbell in this last ride, grazing in very fine Pasture, and which I supposed could not be more than about three miles from the River Nepean opposite to Mr. Davidson's Farm and where I had seen the River and that Farm on Monday afternoon. — From the place I saw Mr. Campbell's Cattle grazing in, we returned back in a North East direction through a very fine Country for about six miles to St. Andrews. — The principal and indeed only objection to the Land we last rode through for six miles is the great want of Water – there being very few Ponds in all that extent, and the Creeks or Gullies (of which there are a great many) we met with and crossed are all dry at this Season of the Year, with the exception of one or two; so that this last Tract of Country is not so well Calculated for small Settlers. We got back to St. Andrews about 3,O'Clock P.M. and finding that Mrs. M. had gone after returning home to see Dr. Townson's Farm and Bunbury Curran Hill immediately in the vicinity of St. Andrews, we all followed her thither, and met her returning home again after having ascended the Hill, accompanied by her Guide Mr. Meehan & a Dragoon. — We also met Capt. Antill and Mr. Moore, who had come from George's River this morning to see me, on their return home from a walk to Dr. Townson's Farm. — The accounts given me by Mrs. M. of the beautiful prospect she had from the top of Bunbury Curran Hill, then very near where we met her, induced me to ascend it, which I did on Horseback, and was highly gratified with the noble extensive view I had from the top of it of the surrounding Country. On my return from the Hill, we overtook Mrs. M. on Dr. Townson's Farm, where we stopt [sic] for a few minutes to speak to the Doctor and to look at a very ill chosen situation he has fixed on for the scite [sic] of his new intended House. — We arrived at our Head Quarters at St. Andrews at 4,O'Clock in the afternoon, after being fully Six Hours on Horseback, which I fear will knock up Mrs. M. as it is much too long a ride for her in such very hot sultry weather; having rode not less than 15 miles on Horseback, besides walking up the high steep Hill of Bunbury Curran. — This morning's ride has also deprived us, I am afraid, for some time of the use and Services of our excellent Coach-man and Groom Joseph Big, who unfortunately received a very bad kick from one of the Horses returning home, which has made a deep cut on the Shin Bone of his Left Leg and made a dent in the Bone itself. — There are hopes however that the Bone is not materially injured and that he will soon recover the use of his Leg again. — We dined at 5,O'Clock, Mr. Moore having staid [sic] to pass this day with us. —

Thursday 22d. —
Wishing to explore very minutely and attentively that Tract of Land lying between the Bunbury Curran Creek and the head of George's River, I got up very early this morning for this purpose; and at half past 5,O'Clock set out from St. Andrews on Horseback, accompanied by Mr. Moore, Capt. Cleaveland, Ensn. Maclaine, Dr. Redfern, my Guide Warlby, [sic] and one orderly Dragoon. — We first travelled in a S. E. by East direction for about 4 miles through very fine rich Land well watered, and fit for both Tillage and Pasture, until our further progress was arrested by a very deep extensive stony Creek or Gully, close to the Banks of which the Rocks appeared. From hence we travelled through equally good and rich land in a N. East by North direction, until we fell in with Rocky Land again about 3 miles from the last Rocks; and our Guide being of opinion that we were here very near George's River, we altered our course in the supposed direction of it, travelling for about half a mile due East; when all of a sudden and unexpectedly we arrived on the Bank of the River, the course of which was here about North East and South West; a very pretty little stream of clear well tasted running water, both Banks being very high, steep, and rocky. Leaving our Horses in charge of the Dragoon, we all descended or scrambled down the Bank we arrived on, crossed the River, and ascended to the top of the opposite Bank; from whence we walked for about a quarter of a mile in a Southerly direction through a very barren rocky bad soil – which appeared to continue equally bad as far as we could see in that direction. — We then returned across the River the same way we came, being perfectly satisfied that this could be no other than the main and principal branch of George's River; which, it would appear, comes from a more Westerly point than has hitherto been supposed, and approaches towards its source within a very few miles of the Nepean River. — It took us only one hour and a quarter to ride from St. Andrews to George's River – which perhaps cannot be above Five Miles in a straight Line from St. Andrews. — We travelled back from the River in a different and more circuitous direction than that by which we came to it; our course homewards being nearly N. West for 3 miles, till we arrived on the Right Bank of the Bunbury Curran Creek through very fine rich Land and open Forest, well watered and fit for agriculture and grazing. — We rode along the Creek for about a mile, then crossed it a little below Dr. Townson's Farm, and returned home from the Left Bank of it in a Westerly direction. — We arrived at St. Andrews at 9,O'Clock, very hungry for our Breakfasts, but highly gratified with our morning's ride; having rode between 14 and 15 miles through the best and finest Country I have yet seen in the Colony, and by far the most eligible centrical and fittest in every point of view for small Settlers to have allotments of Land assigned them in. — I intend forming this Tract of Country into a new and separate District for the accommodation of small Settlers, and to name it "Airds" in honor of my dear good Elizabeth's Family Estate! —

Having Breakfasted and sent off our Servants and Baggage, we took leave of St. Andrews for this time, and set out in the Carriage at Noon for Parramatta, where we arrived after a very pleasant ride of 22 miles at 3,O'Clock in the Afternoon; Joseph, tho' suffering great pain having drove us with his usual Skill and dexterity safe home to our House at Parramatta. —Mr. Moore took his leave of us at St. Andrews to return home; and our excellent Guide Warlby [sic] parted with us on the Road near his own Farm at Prospect. —

Tuesday 27th.
Mrs. M. and myself being both a little indisposed after our late fatigues, and our Servants and Horses requiring some rest, we remained quietly at home since our return from St. Andrews on the 22d. Instant to get well enough against our next excursion.

This forenoon we sent off our Servants, Tents, and other Baggage, together with a small Boat belonging to our Nephew Ensn. Maclaine, to meet us on Doctor Jamieson's Farm, in the Evan District, on the Right Bank of the Nepean; intending to follow them thither ourselves early tomorrow morning in the Carriage by a more circuitous route, in order to see all the intermediate Farms in that District situated on the Banks of the South Creek, previous to our proceeding to explore the new or Western River lately discovered by Mr. Evans the Depy. Surveyor in that part of the Country; for which last purpose I have sent Mr. Maclaine's Boat on this day to the Nepean River. —

Wednesday 28th.
At ½ past 6. a.m. Mrs. M. and myself Set out in the Carriage from Parramatta, accompanied by the Gentlemen of our own Party and Mr. Gregory Blaxland, to prosecute my Tour of Inspection in the interior parts of the Colony. — We passed close to Prospect Hill, and by the Devils Back to Mr. Bayly's Farm near the South Creek; we halted here a little while and admired very much the situation of Mr. Bayly's Farm, and the neatness of his Barn and Stock-Yards; thence passed on across the South Creek to a small Farm belonging to Mr. Gregory Blaxland, at whose Farm Hut we halted to Breakfast. — At ½ past 10. a.m. I set out on Horseback along with Mr. G. Blaxland to see his own and Mr. Badgery's Farms in the Bringelly District; leaving Mrs. M. and the rest of the Party at Mr. Blaxland's Hut where we had Breakfasted.

Called first at Badgery's Farm close on the left Bank of the South Creek, where I was much pleased to find a good Farm House built, a good Garden, and a considerable quantity of ground cleared. — Thence we proceeded to Mr. Blaxland's own Farms, about 5 or six miles distant from the South Creek in a westerly direction. — This is entirely as yet a grazing Farm, with only a miserable Hut for the Stock keepers, and Stock-Yards for the Cattle. — The Land in some parts is tolerably good, and pretty well watered, but is better adapted to grazing than Tillage. We rode back, a different way to what we came, to Mr. G. Blaxland's Farm on the South Creek, through his second large Farm, and a Farm belonging to Doctor Wentworth in the Bringelly District; the Country through this last ride was pretty to look [at] but the Soil generally bad; at 1. P.M. arrived at Mr. Blaxland's Hut, where we rejoined our Friends again. —

At a quarter past 1. P.M. I set out with Mrs. M. in the Carriage, accompanied by the Gentlemen of our Family and Mr. G. Blaxland; and recrossing the South Creek, we travelled along the Right Bank of it to Mr. Marsden's Farm, thence crossed the Creek again to Mrs. O'Connell's Farm of Frogmore – thence to Mrs. King's Farm on the Right Bank of the South Creek; where we halted for a short while to look at her fine numerous Herds of Horned Cattle, of which she has upwards of 700 Head of all descriptions. — Her agent Mr. Hassall was here for the purpose of shewing them to us, and we found them in very high condition. —

After taking a little refreshment at Mrs. King's Farm we pursued our journey to the Place intended for our Embarkation on the River Nepean; and arrived at Doctor Jamison's Farm, situated on the Right Bank of that River, at half past 4 O'Clock in the afternoon; finding all our Servants & Baggage and Boat arrived some time before us. with our Tents ready Pitched for our reception. —This day's Journey from Parramatta by the circuitous route we travelled, cannot be less than 35 miles. — At 5. P.M. we had Ensign Maclaine's Boat launched into the River Nepean, naming her the Discovery. — Here the Nepean is near a mile broad and has a great depth of water for some miles below as well as above Doctor Jamison's Farm; opposite to which is a very fine rich Tract of Country called Eemoo Island. [sic] Mr. Geo. Wm. Evans the Actg. Depy. Surveyor joined our Party at Mrs. King's Farm, and he and Mr. Hassall accompanied us to our Encampment; the latter staying to dine with us, and returning home in the Evening to Mrs. King's Farm. — We went early to Bed, being all a little tired after our long hot Journey.

Thursday 29th. Novr. 1811. [sic]
Having always intended to explore the new or Western River sometime since discovered by Mr. Evans Actg. Depy. Surveyor; Mrs. M. and myself in Mr. Maclaines Boat, accompanied by Capt. Antill, Dr. Redfern, Mr. Evans, & Ensn. Maclaine; and Capt. Cleaveland, Mr. Meehan and Mr. G. Blaxland in another Small Boat we found on Dr. Jamison's Farm, with a sufficient number of Rowers and some refreshments; set out from our Encampment this morning at 6,O'Clock on our Water Excursion up the Nepean River. — We rowed up leisurely so as to have the more time to enjoy the fine and beautiful Scenery of this large River, the Banks of which are very lofty and Clothed with Wood to the very top. — After a pleasant row of four hours, we reached the confluence of the New River and Nepean; the latter dwindling here into a petty stream, and [the] other pouring an immense body of water into a circular Bason, [sic] which connects with the Nepean at this Spot, and then forms one large River. The New River at its confluence with the Nepean runs North West and South East, and a little above the Bason [sic] is about 25 yards broad, the Channel being perfectly clear of Rocks and of considerable depth for a few miles farther up. The Distance from Dr. Jamison's Farm to the junction of the New River with the Nepean cannot be less than Twelve miles from the time we took to row it. — After we had proceeded about half a mile up the River, we halted at a beautiful romantic spot on the Right Bank of it, forming a sort of natural Terrace at the foot of a prodigious high cliff, in order to take our Breakfast and view the grand surrounding Scenery. — We were all well prepared for making a hearty meal, and which everyone enjoyed very much after so long a voyage, and in so beautiful a sequestered Spot.

The Banks of the River are here very lofty and almost perpendicular, not being less than 400 Feet in height and wooded to their very summits. — They are beautifully grand and Picturesque to look at, but extremely difficult to pass or travel through on foot from their great Steepness and ruggedness.

One of the Natives born near this part of the Country, and who made one of our Party on this day's Excursion, tells us that the real and proper native name of this newly discovered River that we are now exploring is the Warragombie, by which name I have directed it to be called in future. — The immense high Hill directly opposite to the Terrace we Breakfasted on, is called Cheenbar, and is well known to the Natives. — After we had Breakfasted we prosecuted our Excursion up the River in our Boats, intending to go as far as our time would permit so as to return the same Day to our Encampment; but before we had proceeded three miles above where we had Breakfasted, our further progress was arrested by the first Fall or Cataract, and which precluded the possibility of proceeding farther on without carrying the Boats over this Fall, which would here prove very laborious. — We therefore resolved on abandoning every idea of pursuing our researches farther; and contenting ourselves with what we had already seen of this fine noble River, to return to our Encampment.

Before we reached the first Fall the River began gradually to contract its Bed, the depth of water was less, and large Rocks were interspersed in the Channel, but still quite sufficient Depth of Water for our Boats up to the Fall. — Beyond the first fall we could perceive several others at great distances, which was an additional reason for our not attempting to pass the first fall. — The Banks on both sides of the River, as far as we went, and as far as we could see beyond the first Fall, continue immensely high and lofty and covered with fine wood to their summits – being in many Places above 400 feet high. — The River Warragombie runs nearly South West and North East at the first Fall. — We arrived there at 2,O'Clock, and after resting our Rowers for about half an Hour, we set out on our return Home, arriving at our Encampment at ½ past 7 O'Clock in the evening, highly pleased and gratified with our Day's Excursion to the Warragombie; which we had explored two miles higher up than Mr. Evans or any other Person had ever before attempted to do. — This Day's Journey by water was at least Thirty Miles backwards and forwards. — We dined immediately on our arrival in Camp, and went early to Bed.

Friday 30th. Novr. —
After Breakfast, at ½ past 10 O'Clock this morning, we broke up our Camp at Dr. Jamison's Farm, and set out to prosecute our Tour along the Farms situated further down the Rivers Nepean and Hawkesbury – our Servants & Baggage setting out at the same time by a more direct Route to our next resting Place or Ground of Encampment on the banks of the Hawkesbury; and Ensn. Maclaine's Boat being sent back on a waggon to Parramatta. — Our pleasant facetious travelling companion Mr. Gregory Blaxland took his leave of us this morning and returned home to attend his own concerns. —

After leaving Doctor Jamison's Farm we passed through Capt. Woodriffe's and Mr. Chapman's, both on the Right Bank of the Nepean and which appeared a very fine rich Soil fit both for Tillage and Pasturage. — Thence we passed through a long extensive chain of Farms along the Nepean belonging to Appledore, Westmore, Collett, Stanyard, Pickering, Field, Stephen Smith, Jones, Cheshire, Harris, Guy, Wm. Cheshire, Landrine, Stockfish, Oldwright, Ryan, Griffith, Kennedy &c. &c. being the front line of Farms on this River.

These are all good Farms, good Soil, and well cultivated, but they are liable to be flooded in general when this River overflows its Banks, and consequently the Houses of the Settlers are very mean and paltry.

There was a tolerable good Road for the Carriage through the whole of these Farms. — On arriving at Donald Kennedy's Farm, which is beautifully Situated on a rising ground near the River, I quitted the carriage and mounted my Horse to view the back line of Farms, and explore the Ground intended to be laid out shortly for a Township and place of Security and retreat for the Settlers inhabiting this part of the Country; leaving Mrs. M. at Kennedy's Farm till my return. — I was accompanied by the Surveyors and the rest of the Party, and we rode over the High Grounds intended for the Township, and which appears a most eligible Situation for one and not more than 3 miles from the River.

We returned by the back line of Farms to Kennedy's, where we rejoined Mrs. M. and thence pursued our Journey along the remaining parts of the Nepean District in the Carriage.

On arriving at Mr. Thompson's Farm of Agnes Bank, we were joined by Mr. Wm. Cox the Magistrate of these Districts. — From Agnes Bank we proceeded to view the Confluence of the Nepean and Grosse [sic] Rivers, which is within about two miles of that Farm. — We drove in the Carriage close to the spot of the junction of the two Rivers, which we went to view on foot, and were highly gratified with the sight. — From the confluence of these two Rivers, the noble River Hawkesbury commences; but here it is only an inconsiderable stream, and not navigable even for small Boats for three or four miles farther down. — From the confluence of the Nepean and Grosse [sic] Rivers we proceeded again in the Carriage along the front line of Farms on the Hawkesbury, till we arrived at the Yellow-Mundie-Lagoon, a noble lake of fine fresh water, at the North End of which we halted and Encamped for the Night; finding all our Servants and Baggage just arrived there only a few minutes before us. — Here Mr. Cox took his leave of us to go home to his own House as did Mr. Evans; promising to be with us again early in the morning.

Whilst our Tents were Pitching and our Dinner getting ready, Mrs. M. and myself took a short ride on Horseback along the Banks of this beautiful Lagoon, returning again to our Tents in about an Hour; having first arrived at our ground of Encampment at ½ past 6 O'Clock, after a Journey of about 25 miles, besides my extra ride to the Township. — We did not dine till 2 past 8 O'Clock – and went soon afterwards to Bed.

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Macquarie, Lachlan. Journal of a Tour of Governor Macquarie's first Inspection of the Interior of the Colony 6 November 1810 - 15 January 1811.
Original held in the Mitchell Library, Sydney.
ML Ref: A778 pp.1-45; [Microfilm Reel CY302 Frames #434-479].

Also available at: Journeys in Time: 1810

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