Technology at AAO
AAO designs and builds instruments for astronomical telescopes. It also develops new technologies for use in future instruments. Astronomical instruments are used to collect data in the form of images and spectra from astronomical sources such as stars, galaxies, and nebulae.
Astronomical instruments typically comprise bulk-optics (lenses, mirrors, diffraction gratings, filters), photonic elements (optical-fibres and waveguides), mechatronics (fibre positioning robots and alignment mechanisms), and detectors (CCDs and infrared arrays).
AESOP is the fibre positioner unit for the 4MOST instrument planned for the 4-metre European Southern Observatories VISTA telescope in Chile. The 4MOST project, led by the Astrophysical Institute Potsdam (Germany), involves a number of European partners. The AAO component, AESOP, deploys 2400 optical fibres to required positions on the curved focal surface of the telescope. Each fibre can be deployed anywhere within a fixed patrol area.
Field reconfigurations are achieved in an iterative closed-loop process with positional feedback from a metrology system. Optical fibres are connectorised at their exit from the positioner system, where they feed a fibre bundle terminated a series of optical spectrographs. The proposed design for AESOP is an evolution of the AAO’s tilting spine technology, first designed and implemented in the FMOS-Echidna instrument for the Subaru telescope.
The Gemini High-Resolution Optical SpecTrograph (GHOST) instrument is the newest instrument being developed for the Gemini telescopes, in a collaboration between the AAO, the Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics in Canada, and the Australian National University.
GHOST uses a high resolution asymmetric white-pupil Echelle spectrograph fed by two moveable optical-fibre image-slicing integral-field-units located at the Gemini Cassegrain focus. The instrument provides a simultaneous wavelength coverage from 363nm to at least 900nm at a resolution of R=50k-75k. GHOST is designed scheduled for commissioning 2017.
Hector is the next major dark-time instrument for the AAT and is a multi integral-field-unit spectrograph aimed at obtaining a low-redshift galaxy survey of up to 30,000 galaxies, with 90% imaged out to 2 effective radii.
Hector will decipher the diversity of galaxies through understanding the physical basis for their individuality.
The key science questions for this instrument include how do galaxies build up mass and angular momentum? How is star formation and nuclear activity affected by environment? What is the role of feedback? And, How does large-scale environment modulate galaxy growth through tidal torques and gas accretion?
Hector will be built in stages and the first stage called Hector-I is under construction.
Hector-I on 2dF:
- Will employ the first new Hector spectrograph (blue and red arm) alongside the existing AAOmega spectrograph, with 13 current SAMI hexabundles plus ~8 new larger hexagonally-packed hexabundles with up to 217 fibre cores each.
- Combination robotic and manual positioning.
- Science operations by early-2019.
- Offers significant science gains over SAMI with increases in survey speed, galaxy coverage to 2 effective radii for most galaxies and higher spectral resolution.
- Will deliver the only IFS survey large enough to connect galaxy evolution and kinematics to large-scale-structure to explain the evolutionary history leading to individuality of galaxies.
Hector-II on 2dF:
- Will be an extension of Hector-I by adding new modules. Each module is one Hector spectrograph (blue and red arm) plus 10 new larger hexagonally-packed hexabundles with up to 217 fibre cores each.
- Allows a faster survey speed and higher fraction of galaxies imaged to 2 effective radii.
- Modules will be added as funding becomes available.
(There are three tabs under Hector: Overview, Instrument Team and Galaxy survey Team. I’ve just included the overview here).
MANIFEST is a fibre positioner designed to feed all the natural seeing spectrographs, presently GCLEF and GMACS, of the Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT). The concept features several hundred Starbug robots that patrol the whole ~20’ GMT field. Each Starbug houses an image-slicing fibre bundle. MANIFEST provides enhanced functionality for the GMT spectrograph by increasing the field-of-view, multiplex, and spectral resolution.
After completing the feasibility study for MANIFEST in mid-2011, the AAO completed an R& D phase in late 2013. We are now conducting the MANIFEST Prototyping Design Study which aims to develop a Starbug-based positioning system for the TAIPAN instrument on the UKST.
The primary aim of PRAXIS is to determine the full astronomical potential of the technique of using fibre Bragg gratings (FBGs) for atmospheric OH suppression in astronomy. To achieve this, we are now building, in a close collaboration with the University of Sydney and the Astrophysical Institute Potsdam, a dedicated high-throughput low-noise J and H-band spectrograph and associated fibre feed and telescope fore-optics unit.
For atmospheric line filtering, the instrument will employ the GNOSIS FBG fibre bundle and a new multicore FBG bundle now being developed.
The TAIPAN instrument consists of a 150-fibre robot positioner operating over the 6 degree field of view of the UK Schmidt Telescope and a dedicated spectrograph. The positioner is based on the Starbug robot technology, which allows for field configurations within a few minutes. The spectrograph is a dual-arm design giving a simultaneous wavelength coverage from 370 to 870 nm at a spectral resolution of R> 2100.
The objectives for TAIPAN are to deliver a capability to Australian astronomers to carry out a comprehensive spectroscopic galaxy and stellar survey of the Southern Hemisphere using a refurbished UK Schmidt Telescope, and to act as a proof-of-concept for the Starbugs positioning technology, proposed for use on the Giant Magellan Telescope. TAIPAN is due for commissioning in early 2016.
Current AAO instruments
This is a new infrared camera for deployment with the AST3-3 wide-field survey telescope to Dome A on the Antarctic Plateau. This project is designed to take advantage of the low Antarctic infrared sky thermal background (particularly within the K dark near infrared atmospheric window at 2.4μm) and the long Antarctic nights to provide high sensitivity temporal data from astronomical sources.
2dF data reduction
2dfdr is an automatic data reduction pipeline dedicated to reducing multi-fibre spectroscopy data, with current implementations for AAOmega (fed by the 2dF, KOALA-IFU, SAMI Multi-IFU or older SPIRAL front-ends), HERMES, 2dF (spectrograph), 6dF, and FMOS.
A graphical user interface is provided to control data reduction and allow inspection of the reduced spectra. It is being continually developed at the AAO in response to user feedback. You can reduce most of your data by simply pressing START AUTO REDUCTION in the Graphical User Interface.
AAOmega – an optical multi-object spectrograph for the AAT – 2006
AAOmega upgrade - new CCDs for the AAOmega instrument at the AAT – 2014
The AAOmega spectrograph was successfully commissioned in January 2006. The spectrograph is a dual-beam system, with Blue and Red arms that cover the full wavelength range, 370nm to 850nm, or 470nm to 950nm using a redder dichroic, at low resolution and are tuneable over these ranges at higher resolutions.
The AAOmega spectrograph can be fed by several front-ends, either the Two Degree Field ("2dF") multi-object system, KOALA integral field unit or SAMI multi-object integral field unit.
In 2014 AAOmega was upgraded to receive two new CCDs.
HERMES - moderate resolution optical spectrograph for the AAT – 2014
HERMES is a four channel fibre-fed spectrograph with high resolution and multi-object capability. It provides a nominal spectral resolution of R~28,000, and an option of higher resolution of R~50,000 using a slit-mask at the cost of approximately 50% light loss. HERMES provides simultaneous observations in the following fixed optical bands:
Blue: 471.5 - 490.0 nm
Green: 564.9 - 587.3 nm
Red: 647.8 - 673.7 nm
IR: 758.5 - 788.7 nm
The HERMES system is built upon the AAT’s existing Two-Degree Field (2dF) optical fibre positioner. In 2018 the cryostates for HERMES were upgraded.
KOALA - 500 element fibre-IFU for the AAT – 2014
KOALA, the Kilofibre Optical AAT Lenslet Array, is a wide-field, high efficiency, integral-field unit designed for use with the bench mounted AAOmega spectrograph on the AAT. KOALA has 1000 hexagonal lenslets in a rectangular array. The field of view is selectable between either 15.3 x 28.3 arcsec (0.7" sampling) or 27.4 x 50.6 arcsec (1.25" sampling). To achieve this, KOALA uses a telecentric double lenslet array fed by interchangeable fore-optics. The IFU is mounted at the f/8 Cassegrain focus and feeds AAOmega via a 31m fibre run.
KOALA benefits from all of the flexibility of the reconfigurable AAOmega spectrograph. The double beam spectrograph provides user selectable wavelength coverage and resolution using a series of movable, interchangeable gratings. A set of low, medium, and high resolution gratings provide R ~ 1,000, R ~ 5,000 or R ~ 10,000 across the wavelength range 330 nm to 900 nm. Each arm can be independently configured. The two arms are separated by a dichroic mirror with either a 570nm or 670nm cut. Full spectral coverage is possible in a single exposure with the low-resolution gratings.
The Automated Patrol Telescope (APT) - 2008
This is a wide-field CCD imaging telescope, which is operated by the University of New South Wales at Siding Spring Observatory, Australia. The optical design employed resembles that of a Schmidt camera, but uses a 3-element lens to achieve a wide, corrected field of view. Telescope motion and operation of the CCD have been placed under computer control, allowing automated observations for long-term survey and monitoring projects. The APT has 0.5m aperture f/1 optics which produce a 5 degree flat field, of which a 2X3 degree field is utilised by the CCD currently installed. Imaging can be done either unfiltered or through B, V R and I broad-band filters.
SPIRAL - upgrade to SPIRAL-B for use with AAOmega at the AAT – 2006
SPIRAL is an integral field unit which feeds a dedicated spectrograph. The IFU has a field of view of 22.4 x 11.2 arc seconds squared with 0.7 arc second spatial sampling. There are 512 spatial sampling elements. The spectrograph is situated on the dome floor and is fed by 18m length of optical fibre.
SPIRAL operates from 4800-10000Å at a variety of wavelength resolutions. It is not recommended for use below 4800Å due to aberrations in the spectrograph optics.
SPIRAL was an "expert user" instrument and required full support from AAO staff. There are also operational limitations on its use, e.g., no grating changes during the night. Applicants granted more than one night of observing time by PATT or ATAC will be encouraged to go to the telescope for their run, to provide early feedback on the data quality, and gain experience in the use of the instrument.
OzPoz - fibre positioning robot for the VLT – 2003
The OzPoz fibre positioner is based on the successful concept developed for 2dF at AAO: while one plate is observing, the other one is positioning the fibres for the subsequent observations. The dead time between two observations is therefore limited to less than 15 minutes, guaranteeing a very good night duty cycle. OzPoz has the capability to host up to 560 fibre per plate.
IRIS2 - near-infrared slit-mask spectrograph and imager for the AAT – 2002
The IRIS2 infrared imager and spectrograph was built in-house by the AAO, and commissioned between October 2001 and July 2002. It provides the AAO with an infrared facility for
- Wide field imaging (~8'x8') with a pixel scale of 0.4486"/pixel
- Moderate resolution (R=2400) long-slit spectroscopy, and
- Moderate resolution (R=2400) multi-object spectroscopy (from 2016B onwards, the MOS mode will no longer be available)
2dF - 1997
The “Two-degree Field” (2dF) project at the AAO gives the 3.9m Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT) a field of view two degrees in diameter at the prime focus, equipped with 400 optical fibres for multi-object spectroscopy. The basic components of 2dF are the corrector lens optics, the robot which positions the fibres and a pair of spectrographs. All these are mounted on a ‘top end ring’ so that the whole assembly can be easily put on and off the telescope.
Current AAO instrument build and design studies
|AESOP||2400-spine fibre positioner for the 4MOST instrument for VISTA||2020|
|AST3-NIR||Wide-field infrared camera for the AST3 telescope at Dome A||2020|
|GHOST||Fibre fed high-resolution spectrograph for Gemini||2019|
|Hector 1||Multi-IFU positioning system and spectrograph for the AAT||2019|
|MANIFEST PCD||Pre-Concept design study for MANIFEST for GMT||2019|
|TAIPAN upgrade||Upgrade of TAIPAN to 300 Starbugs||2019|
|MAVIS||Proposal for an MCAO system and instrument for the VLT||2018|
|NBS||Design Study for a Nasmyth Beam Switcher for Subaru||2018|
|Flat-field source||Flat-field source for the AAT||2018|
|Veloce interfaces||Fibre cable and interfaces for the Veloce spectrograph at the AAT||2018|
|PLATO||Antarctic power generation and communications module||2018|
|HERMES upgrade||Upgrade of cryostats for HERMES at the AAT||2018|
|2dF fibre upgrade||Upgrade of the 2dF and HERMES fibre cable at the AAT||2018|
|PRAXIS||Spectrograph for OH suppression for the AAT||2018|
|TAIPAN positioner||150-fibre Starbug positioner for the UKST||2018|
|2dFDR upgrade||Upgrades to the 2dFDR data reduction system||2018|
|Huntsman||Array of telephoto lenses on common mount at SSO||2018|
Completed AAO instrumentation and telescope facility build projects
|TAIPAN spectrograph||Low resolution spectrograph for TAIPAN at the UKST||2017|
|Flat-field screen||Flat-field screen for the AAT||2017|
|UKST upgrade||UKST telescope and dome control upgrade||2016|
|CACTI||Two degree imager for the AAT||2015|
|HERMES||Moderate resolution optical spectrograph for the AAT||2014|
|AAOmega upgrade||New CCDs for the AAOmega instrument at the AAT||2014|
|KOALA||1000-element fibre-IFU for the AAT||2014|
|SAMI||Multi-IFU hexabundle fibre feed for the AAT||2013|
|Dragonfly||Photonic interferometer for the AAT||2012|
|CYCLOPS2||Fibre image-slicer for UCLES at the AAT||2012|
|GNOSIS||OH suppression fibre-feed for IRIS2 at the AAT||2012|
|CURE||Cassegrain calibration and guide unit at the AAT||2012|
|SAMI prototype||Multi-IFU hexabundle fibre feed for the AAT||2011|
|CYCLOPS||Fibre image-slicer for UCLES at the AAT||2010|
|6dF upgrade||Third field plate added to 6dF at the UKST||2009|
|APT camera||Wide-field optical camera for the APT||2008|
|AAT-TCS||Telescope Control System upgrade for the AAT||2008|
|LN2 Autofiller||LN2 cryostat autofiller system for the AAT||2007|
|FMOS/Echidna||Fibre positioning robot for Subaru||2007|
|UCLES upgrade||Control system upgrade for UCLES for the AAT||2007|
|SPIRAL||Upgrade to SPIRAL-B for use with AAOmega at the AAT||2006|
|AAOmega||Optical multi-object spectrograph for the AAT||2006|
|DomeAir||Dome air-conditioning system for the AAT||2005|
|6dF upgrade||VPH gratings added to the 6dF spectrograph||2002|
|AAO2 controller||Detector controller for AAT instruments||2004|
|OzPoz||Fibre positioning robot for the VLT||2003|
|DAZLE||Near-infrared narrow-band imager for the VLT||2003|
|Helium System||Helium reticulation system for the AAT||2002|
|IRIS2||Near-infrared slit-mask spectrograph and imager for the AAT||2002|
|6dF||150-fibre positioning robot for the UKST||2001|
|PFU||Instrument mount and shutter/filter for WFI at the AAT||2001|
|WFI||Wide field optical imager for prime focus at the AAT||2001|
|MAPPIT-2||High resolution interferometer for the AAT||2000|
|Taurus polarimeter||Imaging polarimetry mode for Taurus for the AAT||2000|
|SOAR-IFU||Prototype fibre-IFU for the SOAR telescope||2000|
|SPIRAL-B||Fibre-IFU and spectrograph for the AAT||2000|
|UKS-TCS||Telescope control system upgrade for the UKST||2000|
|A&G||CCD camera and new system for acquisition and guiding at the AAT||2000|
|UCLES upgrade||Iodine absorption cell addition to UCLES at the AAT||1998|
|LDSS++||Upgrade to LDSS for the AAT||1998|
|MAPPIT||Redundant masking interferometer for the AAT||1997|
|SPIRAL-A||Fibre IFU and spectrograph for the AAT||1997|
|2dF spectrograph||Fibre-fed optical spectrographs for the 2dF system at the AAT||1996|
|CCDCS||CCD Charge Shuffling for the AAT||1997|
|UNSWIRF||Narrow band infrared tuneable filter for IRIS at the AAT||1996|
|2dFDR||Data reduction package for MOS spectrographs||1996|
|TTF||Taurus tuneable filter for Taurus II at the AAT||1996|
|2dF positioner||400-fibre robotic positioner for the AAT||1995|
|IRP||Infrared imager for the SPIREX telescope at the South Pole||1994|
|2dF corrector||2 degree wide field corrector and ADC for the AAT||1993|
|UHRF||Ultra-high resolution optical spectrograph for the AAT||1993|
|IRIS polarimeter||NIR polarimetry module for the IRIS instrument at the AAT||1993|
|FLAIR-II||92-fibre positioner and spectrograph for the UKST||1992|
|Sequencer||Instrument sequencer system for the AAT||1992|
|IRIS||Near-infrared spectrograph and imager for the AAT||1991|
|RGOS polarimeter||Optical polarimetry upgrade to RGOS for the AAT||1990|
|OBSERVER||Instrument and CCD control system for the AAT||1990|
|XMEM||CCD data buffer system for the AAT||1990|
|LBL shutter/filter||Filter and shutter exchanger for LBL focal reducer at the AAT||1989|
|LEM||Large External Memory system for CCDs at the AAT||1989|
|Polarimeter||Hatfield style polarimeter for the AAT||1988|
|IPCS upgrade||High-speed acquisition mode for IPCS at the AAT||1988|
|Coude ADC||Atmospheric Dispersion Corrector the Coude focus at the AAT||1988|
|AAO SI||Speckle Interferometer at the AAT||1988|
|UCLES IPCS||Duplicate IPCS detector head and control rack for UCLES||1988|
|UCLES||High resolution optical Echelle spectrograph for the AAT||1988|
|FLAIR-PANACHE||35-fibre positioning system and spectrograph for the UKST||1988|
|ICSI||IC Speckle interfometer for the AAT||1987|
|PGS||Peter Gillingham “wooden” spectrograph for the AAT||1987|
|Autofib||70-fibre positioner for the RGOS at the AAT||1987|
|FOCAP upgrade||Upgrade of FOCAP to 64 fibres at the AAT||1986|
|Taurus II||Fabry-Perot tuneable filter for the AAT||1986|
|LDSS||Low dispersion spectrograph for the AAT||1986|
|FIGS||Fabry-Perot Infrared Grating Spectrometer at the AAT||1985|
|FORS||Faint Object Red Spectrograph for the AAT||1983|
|FOCAP upgrade||Upgrade to FOCAP with 50 fibres at the AAT||1983|
|IRPS polarimeter||Near-infrared polarimetry module for IRPS at the AAT||1983|
|RGOS polarimeter||Pockels cell spectropolarimeter for RGOS at the AAT||1982|
|CAMAC||Control, data acquisition, and analysis system for the AAT||1982|
|FOCAP||25-fibre plug-plate feed for the RGOS at the AAT||1981|
|Prime focus camera||CCD for prime focus at the AAT||1981|
|CHOPSEC||Chopping secondary system for the AAT||1981|
|Taurus||Fabry-Perot tuneable filter for the AAT||1980|
|Dome upgrade||Upgrade to the dome ventilation system for the AAT||1980|
|Auxiliary camera||Auxiliary focus photometer for the AAT||1980|
|IPCS upgrade||External memory addition to IPCS for the AAT||1979|
|IRPS||Infrared Photometer Spectrometer for the AAT||1978|
|Digital A&G||Image processor for the acquisition system at the AAT||1977|
|IPCS||Boksenberg UCL Image Photon Counting System for the AAT||1976|
|RGOS||Long-slit intermediate dispersion optical spectrograph for the AAT||1976|
|QMC||Millimeter wave instrument at Coude for the AAT||1976|
|BCS||Boller & Chivens f/15 spectrograph for the AAT||1975|
|AAT Photometer||1- and 2-channel photometers for the AAT||1975|
|Wamplertron (IDS)||Image Dissector Scanner for the AAT||1975|
Completed AAO instrument design studies, concepts and proposals
|AST3-NIR PDS||Preliminary Design Study for the AST3-NIR opto-mechanics for AST3||2017|
|Veloce PDS||Preliminary Design Study for the Veloce fibre system and AAT interface||2017|
|DAG||Proposal for an instrument suite for the DAG telescope||2017|
|Sphinx||Conceptual Design Study for a spine-based positioner for MSE||2017|
|4MOST CDS||Conceptual Design Study for the 4MOST instrument for VISTA||2016|
|GHOST CrDS||Critical Design Study for GHOST for Gemini||2015|
|ULTIMATE IFU||Concept and Prototyping Plan for ULTIMATE multi-IFU on Subaru||2015|
|MS-DESI||Conceptual Design Study for a spine-based positioner for the Mayall||2014|
|GHOST PDR||Preliminary Design Study for GHOST for Gemini||2014|
|4MOST PDS||Preliminary Design Study for the 4MOST instrument for VISTA||2013|
|DESpec||Conceptual Design Study for a spine-based positioner for the Blanco||2012|
|GMT SDOC||Contributions to the software operations concept for GMT||2012|
|MANIFEST R&D||Research and Development Study for MANIFEST||2012|
|GHOST CDS||Conceptual Design Study for GHOST for Gemini||2012|
|MANIFEST FS||Feasibility Study for the MANIFEST positioner for GMT||2011|
|GHOST proposal||Proposal for a high-resolution optical spectrograph for Gemini||2011|
|NG1dF||Concept for a slit-mask spectrograph for the AAT||2010|
|Fireball||Proposal for a multi-IFU system for the VLT||2010|
|HERMES FDS||Final Design Study for the HERMES spectrograph for the AAT||2010|
|HERMES CRS||Configuration Review Study for the HERMES spectrograph for the AAT||2009|
|HERMES CDS||Conceptual Design Study for the HERMES spectrograph for the AAT||2008|
|WFMOS-A||Conceptual Design Study for a spine-based positioner for the AAT||2008|
|PILOT||Conceptual Design Study for a 2.5 metre Antarctic telescope for Dome C||2008|
|LDS||Conceptual Design Study for a low-dispersion spectrograph for Gemini||2008|
|WFMOS CDS||Conceptual Design Study for a spine based positioner for Gemini||2007|
|AAOmicron||Concept for a near infrared multi-object spectrograph for the AAT||2007|
|HESP||Conceptual Design Study for a high resolution spectrograph for the HCT||2007|
|WFMOS-K||Feasibility Study for a positioner for the SPM unit telescope||2006|
|SALT-HRS||Design Study for a high resolution spectrograph for SALT||2006|
|SONG||Optical design analysis for the SONG stellar spectrograph||2006|
|FMOS-DR||Proposal for data reduction software for FMOS||2005|
|WFMOS FS||Feasibility Study for a spine based positioner for Gemini||2005|
|Ukidna||Concept for a spine based positioner for the UKST||2004|
|FASTCAM||Concept for a near-infrared lucky imaging camera||2004|
|IRTF||Proposal for an infrared tuneable filter instrument||2004|
|HISPEC||Proposal for an optical/NIR high resolution spectrometer for ELT||2003|
|GRB catcher||Proposal for a fast-response multipurpose instrument for ELT||2003|
|PN.S||Proposal for a Planetary Nebula Spectrograph for the NTT||2003|
|BTODSS||Proposal for an optics diagnostic sensor system for Gemini||2003|
|MOMFOS||Conceptual design study for a spine-based positioner for the GSMT||2003|
|WiFeS||Trade Study for the WiFes spectrograph for the ANU 2.3 m telescope||2003|
|FMOS-Echidna||Final Design Study for the FMOS-Echidna instrument on Subaru||2003|
|CIRPASS feed||Design Study for a fibre link between OzPoz and CIRPASS for the VLT||2002|
|ANDES||Proposal for an infrared spectrograph for the VLT||2001|
|KOSMOS||Concept for a multi-object spectrograph for the Kiso Telescope||2001|
|FMOS-Echidna||Conceptual Design Study for the FMOS-Echidna instrument on Subaru||2001|
|OSIRIS||Concept for an optical imager/spectrograph for the GCT Telescope||2000|
|GIRMOS||Conceptual Design Study for a multi-IFU spectrograph for Gemini||2000|
|IRIS2-g||Conceptual Design Study for a near-infrared spectrograph for Gemini||2000|
|ATLAS||Conceptual Design Study for an spectrograph for the AAT||1999|
|OzPos FDS||Final Design Study for the OzPos positioner for the VLT||1999|
|OzPos PDS||Preliminary Design Study for the OzPos positioner for the VLT||1998|
|SOAR IFU||Concept for a spectrograph and IFU for SOAR||1998|
|Australis||Concept for a fibre positioner and spectrograph for the VLT||1998|
|CAF||Concept for a Coude Auxiliary Feed for the AAT||1991|
|2dF||Proposal for the 2dF system for the AAT||1989|
Technology development activities
|Nulling||Adaptive nulling demonstration at AAT||2017|
|Ring resonator on-sky||Ring resonator tests at the AAT||2017|
|WFS at AAT||Distributed wavefront sensing demonstration at the AAT||2017|
|AO at AAT||Adaptive optics testbed closed loop operation at AAT|
|IPS on sky||Integrated Photonics|
|IPS on telescope||Integrated Photonic Spectrograph demonstration at AAT|
|Starbug||Starbug demonstration on telescope at the UKST|
|F-ADC||Fluid atmospheric dispersion compensation at the AAT|