Revision exercises

Revision exercises

General phonetics revision exercises

Important: You must have installed the phonetic font "Charis SIL" or tested this installation to determine if the phonetic characters installed properly.

The following exercises are provided to test your knowledge of the concepts dealt with in lecture topics 1-4 and 6 as well as the tutorial topic on the International Phonetic Alphabet. An answer sheet is also provided.

1. What are the active and passive articulators in the following?

i. Velar nasal stop
ii. Central uvular fricative
iii. Alveolar lateral approximant
iv. Velar ejective
v. Retroflex approximant

2. Provide phonetic notation for any three sounds produced on an ingressive airstream.

3. Provide phonetic notation for any five front vowels.

4. Provide phonetic notation for any three open (low) vowels.

5. Provide phonetic notation for any two different lateral consonants.

6. Circle the place(s) of articulation at which lateral consonants can be produced.

bilabial labiodental alveolar uvular

7. Provide phonetic notation for any four sounds whose active articulator is the back of the tongue.

8. Which of the following combinations are not possible?

active articulator passive articulator
lower lip   upper teeth
back of tongue   alveolar ridge
back of tongue   upper lip
back of tongue   uvula
tongue tip   hard palate
tongue blade   uvula

9. Which of the following productions are not possible?

central nasal oral fricative
central lateral nasal stop
oral approximant
lateral approximant

lateral fricative

lateral nasal stop

10. Which vocal organ provides the main source of power in producing ejectives and implosives?

11. Briefly describe the production of clicks.

12. Define secondary articulation.

13. What diacritic is added when transcribing labialised sounds?

14. Circle the sounds that are produced with nasal airflow:

l ɢ w v m ɔ̃ ǁŋ

15. Circle the labial sounds:

v n ɹʷ u w

16. Circle the sounds in which the passive articulator is the uvular:

k χ n u

17. Circle the sounds that are produced with complete closure at the alveolar ridge:

s ɗ ɾ ʒ ɮ ɯ n

18. Provide phonetic names for the feature classes Laryngeal, Airstream, Place, Nasality, Stricture for the speech sounds listed below.

i. m
ii.
iii. ɗ
iv. ɡ
v. ʁ
vi. ʒ

19. Give phonetic notation for the following speech sounds:

i. breathy alveolar lateral approximant
ii. voiced retroflex oral stop
iii. voiceless lateral fricative
iv. creaky alveolar fricative
v. alveolar lateral click

20. In a certain language, consonants are palatalised before close (high) front vowels and velarised before close (high) back vowels. Make any changes to the consonants on the left that precede the vowels on the right in accordance with this rule. If no change is necessary, write NC.

i. t y
ii. f ɯ
iii. k i

21. In a certain language, close (high) vowels become glides (maintaining their fronting and rounding features) when they precede other close vowels. Make any changes to the vowels on the left that precede the vowels on the right in accordance with this rule. If no change is necessary, write NC.

i. u y
ii. ø ø
iii. i i
iv. i y
v. ɯ u

22. What features do the groups of sounds have in common?

i. m,b,ɸ   voiceless lateral bilabial approximant egressive
ii. ç, j   breathy retroflex pulmonic palatal nasal
iii. r,ʁ   voiced egressive trill tap fricative
iv. z,n,l,zʲ   alveolar voiced nasal pulmonic fricative
v. y, n,ø,ɶ,ɔ   front half-open close rounded voiced

23. Convert the following sounds into equivalent laterals:

i. z
ii. s

24. Convert the following sounds into equivalent fricatives:

i. t
ii. d
iii. l

25. Convert the following into equivalent sounds produced with lip-rounding:

i. θ
ii. j

26. Briefly explain why the following notation is not possible:

i.
ii.
iii.

27. Give a brief definition of what is meant by the following labels:

i. glottalic
ii. breathy
iii. velarised
iv. ingressive

28. Provide phonetic notation for any two speech sounds that conform to the following description:

i. the soft-palate is lowered; the airstream mechanism is velaric
ii. the vocal folds are completely closed at some stage during the production of the sound
iii. the tip of the tongue makes a complete closure against the alveolar ridge
iv. the blade of the tongue is raised towards the hard-palate but without making a complete closure

29. Define a diphthong

30. Give three criteria for distinguishing consonants from vowels

Answer sheet

1. What are the active and passive articulators in the following:

    ACTIVE PASSIVE
i. velar nasal stop   back of tongue soft palate
ii. central uvular fricative   back of tongue uvula
iii. alveolar lateral approximant   tongue tip alveolar ridge
iv. velar ejective   back of tongue soft palate
v. retroflex approximant   tongue tip hard palate

2. Provide phonetic notation for any three sounds produced on an ingressive airstream.

ɓ ɗ ǀ ǁ ǃ ǀŋ etc.

3. Provide phonetic notation for any five front vowels.

i e ɛ a y ø œ

4. Provide phonetic notation for any three open (low) vowels.

a ɑ ɒ œ

5. Provide phonetic notation for any two different lateral consonants.

l ɮ ɬ

6. Circle the place(s) of articulation at which lateral consonants can be produced.

alveolar

7. Provide phonetic notation for any four sounds whose active articulator is the back of the tongue.

k ɡ q ɢ ŋ etc.

8. Which of the following combinations are not possible?

active articulator passive articulator
back of tongue   alveolar ridge
back of tongue   upper lip
tongue blade   uvula

9.Which of the following productions are not possible?

central nasal oral fricative
central lateral nasal stop
lateral nasal stop

10. Which vocal organ provides the main source of power in producing ejectives and implosives?

larynx

11. Briefly describe the production of clicks.

i. Complete closure achieved at the soft palate
ii. Another closure in front of velar occlusion
iii. Posterior occlusion slides back towards uvular
iv. Air pressure reduced between the two occlusions
v. Release of alveolar constriction
vi. Inflow of air to equalise pressure

12. Define secondary articulation.

Simultaneous bilabial, palatal or velar approximant produced at the same time as a primary articulation which has a higher degree of stricture (usually stop stricture, occasionally fricative stricture) and which is produced at another place of articulation.

13. What diacritic is added when transcribing labialised sounds?

The diacritic [ʷ] superscripted to the symbol of the primary articulation

14. Circle the sounds that are produced with nasal airflow.

m ɔ̃ ǁŋ

15. Circle the labial sounds:

v u w

16. Circle the sounds in which the passive articulator is the uvular:

χ

17. Circle the sounds that are produced with complete closure at the alveolar ridge:

ɗ ɾ n

18. Provide phonetic names for the feature classes Laryngeal, Airstream, Place, Nasality, Stricture for the speech sounds listed below.

    
Laryngeal
 
Airstream
 
Place
 
Nasality
 
Stricture
i.   m  
voiced
 
pulmonic
 
bilabial
 
nasal
 
stop
ii.   
voiced
 
pulmonic
 
palatalised
alveolar
 
oral
 
fricative
iii.   ɗ  
voiced
 
glottalic
 
alveolar
 
oral
 
stop
iv.   g  
voiced
 
pulmonic
 
velar
 
oral
 
stop
v.   ʁ  
voiced
 
pulmonic
 
uvular
 
oral
 
fricative
vi.   ʒ  
voiced
 
pulmonic
 
palato-
alveolar
 
oral
 
fricative

19. Give phonetic notation for the following speech sounds:

i. breathy alveolar lateral approximant  
ii. voiced retroflex oral stop   ɖ
iii. voiceless lateral fricative   ɬ
iv. creaky alveolar fricative  
v. alveolar lateral click   ǁ or ǁŋ

20. In a certain language, consonants are palatalised before close (high) front vowels and velarised before close (high) back vowels. Make any changes to the consonants on the left that precede the vowels on the right in accordance with this rule. If no change is necessary, write NC.

i.   t y   
ii.   f ɯ   
iii.   k i    kʲ or c

21. In a certain language, close (high) vowels become glides (maintaining their fronting and rounding features) when they precede other close vowels. Make any changes to the vowels on the left that precede the vowels on the right in accordance with this rule. If no change is necessary, write NC.

i.   u y    w
ii.   ø ø    NC
iii.   i i    j
iv.   i y    j
v.   ɯ u    ɰ

22. What features do the groups of sounds have in common?

i.   m,b,ɸ   bilabial egressive
ii.   ç,j   pulmonic palatal
iii.   r,ʁ   voiced egressive
iv.   z,n,l,zʲ   pulmonic voiced alveolar
v.   y, n, ø, ɶ,ɔ   voiced

23. Convert the following sounds into equivalent laterals:

i.   z    ɮ
ii.   s    ɬ

24. Convert the following sounds into equivalent fricatives:

i.   t    s
ii.   d    z
iii.   l    ɮ

25. Convert the following into equivalent sounds produced with lip-rounding

i.   θ    θʷ
ii.   j    ɥ

26. Briefly explain why the following notation is not possible:

i.    u is already labialised
ii.    ejectives cannot be voiced
iii.    only oral sounds can be aspirated

27. Give a brief definition of what is meant by the following labels:

i.   glottalic   airstream involving laryngeal power source
ii.   breathy   inefficient vocal fold vibration allowing escape of air
iii.   velarised   secondary articulation involving raising the back of the tongue
iv.   ingressive   inflowing air

28. Provide phonetic notation for any two speech sounds that conform to the following description:

When two vowels occur in a single syllable

30. Give three criteria for distinguishing consonants from vowels

i.   acoustic   -   loudness
ii.   physiological   -   oral impedance
iii.   phonological   -   syllabic position
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