Representations of Ancient Australia
Representations of ancient Australia have historically been shaped and dictated by their implications for contemporary politics, presenting ancient Australians as a primitive hunter-gatherer society to support policies aimed at ‘civilising’ present day Aboriginal people. This first syllabus point allows students to consider this dominant representation of ancient Australia, and the foundations it is based upon, against other, less pervasive, representations of ancient Australia. Students should consider the implications of a living culture, adapted but continuing, on studying the ancient past.
Ancient Australians are frequently remembered merely as primitive nomadic hunter-gatherers without any estates or farms. More recent explorations of ancient Australian culture and agricultural practices have, however, revealed an array of advanced farming techniques and practices such as fire-stick farming, fist traps and damns, and granaries and store houses.
The question of how ancient Australians came to be within Australia has also been debated and contested. Archaeological evidence such as the remains of Mungo Man and Mungo Woman has placed Aboriginal occupation within Australia back to roughly 40,000-42,000 BP (before present). Some represent ancient Australian’s migration to Australia as an accidental occurrence, while others argue that such a migration could not have occurred accidentally, requiring deliberate intent and extensive navigational skills.
Sources for Representations of Ancient Australia
- Cover page from Australian magazine PIX Vol.1, no.21 June 18, 1938.
AHM 007199. Australian History Museum, Macquarie University
- Children's Book:
AHM 004538. Australian History Museum, Macquarie University
- Gammage, Bill, "Introduction: The Australian estate”, in The Biggest Estate on Earth: How Aborigines made Australia, (Sydney, 2011), p.1-4.
Gammage argues that First Australians practiced sophisticated agricultural practices and thereby were incorrectly and unfairly represented as primitive hunter-gatherers.
- Article in Bush Telegraph (2014)
Wilson, Cameron.“Rethinking Indigenous Australia’s Agricultural Past.” Bush Telegraph. (May 2014). https://www.abc.net.au/radionational/programs/archived/bushtelegraph/rethinking-indigenous-australias-agricultural-past/5452454
Summary of the main arguments for the presence of sophisticated Indigenous agricultural practices by the time of colonisation.
- King, Charlotte & Banks, Deb. “Hunter gatherers: Invented to undermine first nations people.” (July, 2014).
Article published on the website: Sovereign Union – First Nations Asserting Sovereignty. http://nationalunitygovernment.org/content/hunter-gatherers-invented-undermine-first-nations-people
Contains useful text, images and video content.
The site discusses Bruce Pascoe's book Dark Emu and his contention that the image of a primitive Indigenous hunter-gatherer society was invented to legitimise colonisation.
- Kinslea, Alethea, Ancient Australia Unearthed, (Melbourne, 2014), p.56-57.
Description of the Indigenous agricultural practice of Firestick Farming with student investigation questions.
- Dorey, Fran. “The Spread of People to Australia.” Australian Museum. (November 2018) https://australianmuseum.net.au/learn/science/human-evolution/the-spread-of-people-to-australia/
Represents current views on the origins of Indigenous Australians.
Sample lesson plan (min. 45 mins)
This lesson could easily be extended to a 60 minute lesson by allowing more time for the group work and/or questions and class discussion at the conclusion of the lesson.
Use this worksheet in conjunction with the lesson plan above.