When preparing your assignment you need to acknowledge all the materials you draw upon, quote, paraphrase or mention. A referencing style is the set of conventions used to acknowledge the work of other authors.

Style guides generally outline the way you are expected to format and present your assignments.

You should check course information or consult with academic staff for the style required by your department.

Styles of Referencing

ACS Style - American Chemical Society

ACS/CAS Abbreviations

(American Chemical Society/ Chemical Abstracts Service)

AGLC STYLE (Australian Guide to Legal Citation)

APA Style - American Psychological Association

Chicago (Turabian) Style

Harvard (Author-Date) Style

IEEE Style

MLA Style - Modern Language Association

Oxford Style

Vancouver Style

Citing Electronic Styles

APA Electronic Reference
Citing internet, email, and database sources. The American Psychological Association's own guide.

Citation Guides for Electronic Documents
A list of citation sites.

MLA Style - Electronic Sources (Web Publications)

How to cite resources read on e-book readers

The following information has been drawn from the blog of J.R. Daniel Kirk and the APA Style Blog. Most other citation styles, have not yet provided examples of e-book reader citations

In-text citation:
E-books often lack page numbers, although PDF versions may have them. Kindle books have location numbers, which are static (don't change with the font size), but can't be read without a Kindle reader. Options include:

  1. Paraphrase the information so a page number is not required
  2. Use Chapter, Section, Para to locate the section
  3. On locate the book and use the 'search inside' feature by typing in a portion of the quotation
  4. If the line numbers are stable, these could also be used.

(Gladwell, 2008)
(Gladwell, 2008, Chapter 1, Section 2, para. 5)
Miller, 2009, lines 300-320)

The citation for the bibliography should contain the type or model of the e-book being used (Amazon, Kindle, Microsoft, Adobe Digital, Sony etc.) and the location number of the quote (page numbers are not shown). Include the DOI if it is available.

Gladwell, M. (2008). Outliers: The story of success [Kindle DX version]. Retrieved from
Gladwell, M. (2006). Blink [Kindle iPad version]. Retrieved from
Brill, P. (2004). The winner's way [Adobe Digital Editions version]. Doi:10.1036/007142363X

Style Guides - Structure, Grammar and Usage

APA Documentation - University of Wisconsin-Madison
A basic guide to formatting documents in APA 6th style. In addition to information on citations and referencing, this resource provides details of how to format a paper and use grammar, abbreviations, quotes and numbers.

Australian Guide to Legal Citations (Melbourne University)

Online English Grammar by Anthony Hughes
Comprehensive British education site.

Online Writing Lab - Roane State Community College, U.S.A.
Large amount of information on essay writing, documentation, research, editing, grammar and punctuation, plus other web links.

Online Writing Lab - Purdue University, U.S.A.
Another site with many resources to help your writing.

Elements of Style by William Strunk
Originally published in 1918, this is still an excellent guide to usage, composition and form.

Non-Discriminatory Presentation & Practice - University of NSW
Guidelines for using non-discriminatory language.

How to Prepare an Annotated Bibliography
From Cornell University Library.

Notes on the Structure of a Scientific Paper
From the University of Canberra's Applied Ecology Research Group.