The HOO 2012 Error Type Definitions
The set of error tags we use in HOO is based on the Cambridge University Press Error Coding System; this is copyright to Cambridge University Press and may only be used with their written permission. The coding is used by CUP to annotate the Cambridge Learner Corpus (CLC), which informs English Language Teaching materials published by CUP. The scheme is discussed in detail in [Nicholls, 2003].
The HOO coding scheme uses a different syntax from the CLC, but has essentially the same semantics. The HOO encoding allows for optional and multiple corrrections, which CLC does not, and allows for distinct edits to be related to each other by means of what we call consistency sets. HOO also adds a CC tag for compound changes. None of these supplementary features is made use of in HOO 2012.
The Error Tags
The CLC scheme accommodates around 80 distinct error tags. For HOO 2012, we use only six of these, shown with examples in the table below.
|RT||Replace preposition||When I arrived at London|
|MT||Missing preposition||I gave it John|
|UT||Unnecessary preposition||I told to John that ...|
|RD||Replace determiner||Have the nice day|
|MD||Missing determiner||I have car|
|UD||Unnecessary determiner||There was a lot of the traffic|