Glossary

Glossary

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

This glossary has been adapted from the NHMRCNational Health and Medical Research Council.



ADR

Associate Dean of Research

AIATSIS

Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies

Amendment requests

A change to an approved project

ANZCTR

Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry

ARC

Australian Research Council

ARPANSA

Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency

ART

Assisted Reproductive Technology

ASAM

Australian School of Advanced Medicine

Benefits

Benefits of research may include, for example, gains in knowledge, insight and understanding, improved social welfare and individual wellbeing, and gains in skill or expertise for individual researchers, teams or institutions.

Capitation payments

A fee or grant paid to a doctor, school, etc., the amount of which is determined by the number of patients, pupils or customers that are recruited to the research project.

CBMS

Chemistry and Biomolecular Sciences

CEO

Chief Executive Officer

Children and/or young people

Persons who are under eighteen (18) years of age

Clinical research

Clinical research involving humans seeks to find out whether an intervention – including treatments or diagnostic procedures – may improve a person's health. An intervention may involve testing a drug, a surgical or other therapeutic/preventative procedure, or a therapeutic/preventative/diagnostic device, practice or service

Clinical trial

Research involving an unapproved or approved therapeutic goods, intervention or treatment

COI

Conflict of Interest

Conflict of Interest

Where a person's individual interests or responsibilities have the potential to influence the carrying out of his or her institutional role or professional obligations in research; or where an institution's interests or responsibilities have the potential to influence the carrying out of its research obligations

Coordinating (Principalprincipal) investigator

The person who – in a multi-site research project, where Macquarie University is providing ethical review for more than one institution/site – is the primary point of contact between the groups of collaborating investigators/researchers and the HREC

CPI

Coordinating (Principal) Investigator

CTN

Clinical Trial Notification

CTP

Clinical Trial Protocol

CTX

Clinical Trial Exemption

Discomfort

Discomforts (less serious than harm) can involve body and/or mind and include:

- minor side effects of medication
- the discomforts related to measuring blood pressure
- anxiety induced by an interview. 

Where a person's reactions exceed discomfort and become distress, they should be viewed as harms.

Discontinue

The process by which a principal or coordinating investigator notifies the Human Research Ethics Committee responsible for providing ethics approval that a project will not be completed.

DNA

Deoxyribonucleic Acid

DSMB

Data and Safety Monitoring Board

Duality of interest

Where two or more interests co-exist. These interests may or may not conflict, depending on the specific circumstances.

External review

A Macquarie University process, applicable only to internal applicants for externally-approved projects where all of the research will be conducted offsite (ie does not take place at Macquarie University or at Macquarie University Hospital). Investigators must also be listed on the external application (either by an amendment or as a named Principal Investigator).

Genetic research

The evaluation of somatic genetics/epigenetics of cells in which the primary purpose is not to identify germline disease-predisposing mutations.

Genetic testing

The analysis of genetic material in which the primary purpose is to identify high or low penetrance germline disease-predisposing mutations.

Harm

No list of potential harms in research will be exhaustive; however, the following classifications may assist: 

- physical harms (eg injury, illness, pain) 
- psychological harms (eg feelings of worthlessness, distress, guilt, anger or fear) 
- devaluation of personal worth (eg being humiliated, manipulated or treated disrespectfully or unjustly) 
- social harms (eg damage to relationships with others, discrimination, etc.)
- economic harms (eg imposing costs onto participants) 
- legal harms (eg discovery and prosecution of criminal conduct).

HDRO

Higher Degree Research Office

HoD or HOD

Head of Department

HREC

Human Research Ethics Committee

HTML

Hypertext Markup Language

HUM

Human Sciences and Humanities

Human Research Ethics Committee

An institutional body that has been established in accordance with Chapter 5.1 of the National Statement and conducts the ethical review of research.

Human Tissue tissue samples

Includes blood, tissue, sputum, urine or autopsy with or without tissue retention.

Inconvenience

Examples of inconvenience (less serious than harm and discomfort) may include: 

- filling in a form
- participating in a street survey
- giving up time to participate in research.

Institution

The entity responsible for the conduct of research as described in the National Statement and the Code. Alternatively, the entity that has established a HREC as per Chapter 5.1 of the National Statement.

IPP

Information Privacy Principle

IRIS

Integrated Research Information System

LNR

Low and/or negligible risk (research)

Low risk research

Where the only foreseeable risk is one of discomfort to the research participant (see National Statement Chapter 2.1).

MDS

Medical Sciences

MGSM

Macquarie Graduate School of Management

MQ

Macquarie University

MUH

Macquarie University Hospital

Multi-centre research

A research project undertaken by a group of institutions (or individuals) at one or more sites (as defined by the NHMRC).

Multi-site review

A Macquarie University process, where Macquarie University assumes oversight of one or more external institutions/sites. For external applicants, this would apply where Macquarie University oversight involves two or more external institutions/sites. This type of application needs to report on all research personnel and project details that apply to the sites for which the Macquarie University will be providing ethical review.

HREA

The Human Research Ethics Application Form

Negligible research

Where there is no foreseeable risk of harm or discomfort, and any foreseeable risk is no more than one of inconvenience to the research participant (see National Statement Chapter 2.1).

NHMRC

National Health and Medical Research Council

NPP

National Privacy Principle

NS or National Statement

National Statement on Ethical Conduct in Human Research 2007 

NSW

New South Wales

OGTR

Office of the Gene Technology Regulator

PACE

Participation and Community Engagement

PDF

Portable Document Format (ie Adobe Acrobat/Reader document)

PI

Principal Investigator

PICF

Participant Information and Consent Form

Principal investigator

The person who is the principal point of contact with the HREC for all the research personnel listed in the research proposal. Principal Investigator (or PI) should be used in the following circumstances:

- (if the project is for student research) to identify the Principal Supervisor of the student(s)
- to identify the lead researcher and, therefore, the primary contact
- (if Macquarie University is providing ethical review for more than one institution/site) to identify the lead researcher at each institution/site.

Prior review

A Macquarie University process, for instance where researchers (namely those in medical sciences) wish to obtain ethical review from Macquarie University for an additional (single) site – ie one that was not covered by a previous application that received approval from one of the following types of external HRECs:

- another Australian university
- another Australian hospital
- NSW Public Health (or other state equivalent)
- NSW Justice Health (or other state equivalent)
- Australian Department of Defence. 

All Prior Review applications are reviewed by the HREC (Medical Sciences). External applicants may also apply.

Protocol

A document that provides the background, rationale and objectives of the proposed research and describes its design, methodology, organisation and the conditions under which it is to be performed and managed.

Research

Original investigation undertaken to gain knowledge, understanding and insight (see National Statement and the Code).

RIHE

Research Involving Human Embryos

Risk

A risk is a potential for harm, discomfort or inconvenience and involves:

- the likelihood that a harm (or discomfort or inconvenience) will occur
- the severity of the harm, including its consequences.

RME

Research Master Enterprises

RNA

Ribonucleic Acid

RPS

Radiation Protection Series

SAE

Serious Adverse Event

Scientific review

A review of proposed research to consider the level of scientific validity of research methodology before the proposal is considered by a HREC.

SERAP

State Education Research Applications Process

SIBT

Sydney Institute of Business and Technology

Single-site research

A research project undertaken at a single location

Site

The location(s) at which the research is being conducted – namely in reference to universities, schools, hospitals and other health practices/clinics

SUSAR

Serious Unexpected Suspected Adverse Reaction

The Code

Australian Code for the Responsible Conduct of Research (2007) 

TGA

Therapeutic Goods Administration

URL

Uniform Resource Locator (ie a web address)

WHS

Work Health and Safety

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