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Wednesday 4. Ocr. 1820 !
I went down to Sydney after Breakfast this morning in the Carriage, to transact Business – and to muster the Convicts landed this morning from the Ship Shipley – namely 146 men – 61 of whom were sent, after being inspected, on board the Ship Guildford to proceed to the Derwent in that Ship with 189 men of her own Convicts. — I returned to Parramatta in the afternoon to Dinner Commissr. Bigge & a large Party of Friends having dined with us. —

Thursday 5. Ocr. !
The Fair, appointed to take place at Parramatta every six months, was held this day – which the Commissr. and myself attended. — L.M.

Friday 6. Octr. 1820 !
Commissioner Bigge, attended by Mr. Secry. Scott, Mr. Oxley Surveyor Genl., and Mr. Cordeaux Dy. Asst. Comy. Genl., set out this forenoon on his Expedition to Bathurst, and with the intention of returning by the Country sometime since discovered by Mr. Throsby – and where I have promised to meet him in about Fourteen days hence – at "Bathurst Lake"!

Friday 13 Octr. !
I went down this morning to Sydney in the Carriage, accompanied by Mrs. M. & Lachlan, – to transact Business, and to dispach [sic] the Guildford Male Convict Ship for the Derwent. —

We staid at Sydney all night.

Saturday 14. Octr. !
After giving out the necessary orders, previous to my departure for the New discovered Country – I returned in the afternoon of this day with my Family to Parramatta. —

Monday 16. Octr. 1820 !
I set out early this morning in my Carriage on my Tour of Inspection to the New discovered Country, to the Southward and Westward of the Cow Pastures; having previously sent off my Servants and Baggage in advance to wait my arrival at the Quarry Creek in the Cow Pastures, for which place they set out on Friday the 13th. Instant. — The following Gentlemen Composed my Suite on this Tour – namely – Major Antill, Lieut. Macquarie. Mr. Meehan, Dy. Surveyor Genl., Revd. Mr. Cartwright, Dr. Reid R. Navy, and Mr. Chas. Throsby.

Macquarie, Lachlan. Diary 1 March 1820 – 8 March 1821.
Original held in the Mitchell Library, Sydney.
ML Ref: A774 pp.166-168; [Microfilm Reel: CY301 Frames #562-574].

Journal of A Tour of Inspection to the Western and Southern Countries some time since discovered by Chas. Throsby Esqr. In Octr. & Novr. 1820

Monday 16. Octr. 1820.
Having resolved on making a Tour of Inspection to the new Country some time since discovered by Charles Throsby Esqr. to the South West of the Cow Pastures, I set out this morning at Half past Six OClock from Parramatta on my intended Tour in my Carriage, with my old faithful Valet George Jarvis, having previously taken an early leave of all that is dear to me in life. I sent off my Heavy Baggage on Friday last the 13th. Instant, together with my Servants under charge of Thomas Evans the Orderly Dragoon, appointed for this duty with orders to halt at Stone Quarry Creek in the Cow Pastures till my arrival there. — The Party to accompany me on this Tour consists of Major Antill, Lt. Macquarie, Mr. Meehan, Dr. Reid R. Navy, the Revd. Mr. Cartwright – and Mr. Throsby; the two latter, and Mr. Meehan having appointed to meet me at Liverpool – or on the Road beyond it. —

Halted at Liverpool to Breakfast and bait our Horses. — At 9,O'Clock set out from Liverpool; The Revd. Mr. Cartwright and Mr. Meehan having joined me there. — Travelled in my Carriage by the Bringelly and Cow Pasture Roads, to the Ford of the River Nepean at the Governor's Hut – where I was met by Mr. David Johnston the Supdt. of Govt. Stock – and Mr. Charker the Prinl. Overseer of Govt. Stock, to guide the Carriage across the River and afterwards to the Prinl. Govt. Stock-Yard. — I crossed the Ford on Horseback – and found it very firm and good. — The Carriage also passed it without any difficulty. — After passing the Ford, I went again into the Carriage to the Govt. Stock-Yard, travelling all the way through a beautiful rich Park-like Tract of Country; the Stock Yard being 3 miles from the Ford. — From the Govt. Cottage built some time since for the residence of the Overseer of Stock, there is a very fine Picturesque view of the Surrounding Country – and of Mount Hunter in the fore-ground – there being most excellent Pasturage for the Government Cattle at this Station. — I inspected the Govt. Herds, consisting of 550 Head of young Cows & Steers, in two separate Herds. — After inspecting the Cattle, we were entertained by Mr. Johnston with a very neat Cold Collation, Wine & Spirits – which we all partook of very cheerfully.

Having finished our repast I mounted my Horse Sultan and rode along with the other Gentlemen over the Hills by a short Cut to Stone Quarry Creek; Joseph proceeding the longer way, by Mr. Mc.Arthur's Camden Farm to the same Station, having by that route 14 miles to go which we go in 10 on Horseback.

We passed through some very rich verdant Vallies between Mounts Taurus and Hunter before we ascended the Ridge which connects them. — We stopped for Half an Hour at the large Govt. new Paddock within Half a mile of Stone Quarry Creek to examine the Govt. Invalid Herd at that Station – and found them greatly improved. — This is the Station where the Wild Cattle are first brought when caught to be reclaimed. The Stockmen had the good fortune of driving in 19 Head this morning – which I found in a separate Paddock – and in very tolerable good condition.

From the New Stock-Yard, we pursued our Journey to Stone Quarry Creek – where we arrived at ½ past 4,O'Clock – and found all our Servants and Baggage all Snug and Safe encamped on the South Side of the Creek. Joseph arrived with the Carriage in half an Hour after us. — The Servants stupidly enough, had not Pitched our Tents; neither had they prepared any Dinner for us, which was still worse; but, as we had all made a hearty meal at Mr. Johnston's, it was of the less consequence. — Our Tents were immediately Pitched and the Cook soon roasted a couple of Fowls for us, and we sat down to a very good Dinner at 6,O'Clock.

Before I left the Govt. Stock Yard, where we first Halted and took our Lunch today, I was so much pleased with the Beauty of the Situation of that spot, that I was induced to name it "Cawdor" in honor of my dearest Elizabeth's Family; this Place having no particular name or designation before. I ordered also that two addl. Rooms should be added to the Cottage at Cawdor for my own – and Succeeding Governors' accommodation – whenever I may happen to visit this part of the Country. —

We sat a very short time at Dinner – had Tea – and went early to Bed. —

Tuesday 17th. Octr.
We all got up by 5,O'Clock this morning – had the Baggage loaded – and Breakfasted at ½ past 5,O'Clock. — The whole of the Baggage did not get off, however till 7,O'Clock.

Wishing to see some parts of the Country where the Carriage could not travel through I desired Joseph to follow the Baggage with it, whilst I mounted Sultan and rode with the Gentlemen of my Suite and Mr. David Johnston and Charker – who accompanied me yesterday from Cawdor to the Stock-Yard at Stone Quarry Creek. — We rode over some very fine rich Pasture Grounds – and crossed several gentle Hills admirably well adapted for Sheep. — I also examined a most eligible situation on the North Bank of this Creek for a Township whenever this desirable part of the Country is Settled.

Mr. Johnston & Charker accompanied us for about 7 miles on the way to Bargo – and on our getting on the regular made Road by which the Carriage and Baggage went, they took their leave of us to return to Cawdor.

I entrusted Mr. Johnston with a Letter I had written last night to Mrs. M. with directions to forward it to her to Parramatta. —

We overtook the Carriage and Baggage soon after we had crossed the Bargo River, and were soon afterwards joined by Mr. Throsby as we Passed through Bargo. — This is rather a barren Country, very few Parts of it being fit for Cultivation. — After passing through Bargo, we entered a very long Barren Scrubby Brush of 9 miles in extent – now named Kennedy's Brush – in honor of the Person of that name who first passed through it with the Natives. We then entered the Tract of Country called Mittagong, and at Half past 2,O'Clock arrived at Kannabygle's Plains, where we encamped and Halted for this day; –this Place being 24 miles in a South westerly direction from Stone Quarry Creek – which is rather too long a Journey for Heavy Loaded Carts, some of which did not arrive on the Ground for Two Hours and a quarter after the two light Carts had come to their Ground; – some parts of the Road being very rough and stoney. — The Ground we have encamped on today is a very pretty spot, on the edge of a rich extensive Meadow, with a Chain of fine Fresh Water Ponds in front of our Tents, and excellent Forage for our Cattle. —

We dined at Six, Drank Tea at 8 – and retired to Bed a little after 9,O'Clock.

Wednesday 18. Octr.
We all got up before 5,O'Clock this morning to prepare for setting out on our Journey in good time. — On getting up I was not a little annoyed to learn that two of my Carriage Horses ("Ajax" & "General") had made their escape in the Night and were no where to be found.

Different Persons, besides two Natives, were sent in all directions in quest of them – but they all returned without being successful. Joseph then sent Mills the 2d. Coachman back on the Road we came yesterday, under the impression they had returned Home, in hopes of overtaking them.

We Breakfasted in the mean time at 6,O'Clock, and sent off the Baggage about 7,O'Clock to the next Stage – which we determined should be a short one. — I remained on the Ground of last Night till 8,O'Clock – when despairing of the two Carriage Horses being found, I set out on Horseback with the Gentlemen of my Suite after the Baggage; leaving Joseph on the Ground to wait the return of Mills, Denning, and Vaughan the Constable – besides two Black Natives – all of whom were then out in different directions in quest of the Carriage Horses.

From Kannabygles Plains for 3 or 4 miles the Country is nearly level, and tolerable good Soil – with poor stunted Timber. — The District called Mittagong commences on leaving Kannabygles Plains – and after 3 or 4 miles we come to the foot of the ascent of Mittagong Range – which tho' long is a very easy ascent – in many parts of which there are fine springs of Fresh Water. — When I had rode about six miles – and had halted on a part of the Range to take a view of the adjoining Country; Denning joined me with the agreeable news of the 2 Carriage Horses being found, and brought back to our last Camp by Mills, who had followed their Track back on the Road we came yesterday till he overtook them near Bargo, a distance of 12 miles from our Camp. — This will be a lesson to Joseph during the rest of our Journey – to be more careful in Tethering his Horses. — The Country we passed through today – called Mittagong – is generally a very poor soil – and not very fit for Small Settlers – but a tolerable good grazing Country. — It improves however as we came nearer the Wingeecarabie River, and immediately at that River, it becomes really beautiful – being fit for both Cultivation & Grazing. We crossed the Wingeecarabie River by a good sound Pebbly Ford, where the Country opens into very rich Pasturage. — The River here is a very pretty clear little stream about Ten yards in width. We met a numerous Herd of about 400 Head of Cattle belonging to Mr. Throsby feeding in a rich fine Meadow on the West Bank of the River, looking sleek and fat, some of the Cattle being very large in size. — From the River to Mr. Throsby's Establishment or Farm is about 1 Mile & a Half, and here we arrived a little after Twelve OClock – the distance to Mr. Throsby's Hut from our last Ground being only Eleven Miles. — The Grounds adjoining Mr. Throsby's Hut are extremely pretty – gentle Hills and Dales – with an extensive rich Valley in his Front – ; the whole Surrounding Grounds having a very Park-like appearance – being very thinly wooded. — Our Baggage arrived in Half an Hour after ourselves, and we Pitched our Camp on a fine Clear Commanding Eminence a little in rear of Mr. Throsby's Hut. — Dr. Reid very soon after we arrived here found a very fine Piece of Iron Ore on the top of a Hill close to our Camp. — I met here with Joseph Wild, one of the first Settlers I sent with Mr. Throsby to this new Country – and who has the immediate direction of the Party employed in constructing the Road towards Bathurst thro' this Country. — Wild tells me they have completed the Road to the Summit of the Cookbundoon Range – about 40 miles from hence – and which he adds the Carriage and Carts can ascend very easily, but we must divide this distance into three Separate Stages. —

At ½ past 6 P.M. just as we had done Dinner, I received an Express from my dearest Elizabeth, enclosing a Letter from Commissr. Bigge from Bathurst, dated Wednesday the 11th. Instant, informing me of his arrival there – and of his intention to set out from thence on this same day (– Wedy. the l8th. Octr. –) to meet me at the Bathurst Lake – the Place appointed for our meeting. Mrs. M. received this Letter on the same day I left Parramatta and forwarded after me by an Express Constable. — Her Letter contained very satisfactory accounts of herself and our beloved Lachlan.

Mr. Throsby not having yet given any particular name or designation to his new Estate in this fine Country, I have, with his own consent, named it "Throsby-Park" – a designation particularly suitable and appropriate to his beautiful Park like Grounds. —

We sat only a very short time after Dinner – Drank Tea, and went to Bed at 9,O'Clock.

Thursday 19. Octr.
Got up at Day-break, and rode out along with the Revd. Mr. Cartwright, Major Antill, Mr. Meehan & Mr. Throsby, to see the Country in this vicinity.

We passed through several very fine extensive Meadows – and large rich Tracts of Forest Land fit for both Cultivation and Pasturage – with plenty of good Water in Lagoons, Ponds, and Springs – and abounding in very fine Timber. — We were out 4 Hours & a quarter, and must have rode at least 16 Miles; having gone out in one direction and returned Home by a different one. — The Situation of the New Settlers 4 miles South West of Throsby-Park, is particularly beautiful and rich – resembling a fine extensive Pleasure Grounds in England. — On seeing this sweet spot, I longed much to have Mrs. M. and dear Lachlan with me to participate in the pleasure I felt on beholding so beautiful a Landscape. — We saw a vast number of the large Forest Kangaroos in this morning's Excursion. —

We returned to our Camp at a quarter before Ten – and soon partook of a good hearty Breakfast.

The heavy Baggage was sent off at 11,O'Clock today, with orders to proceed today only 9 Miles to Tindounbindal, – and tomorrow to the Wallandilli River, where we intend joining them tomorrow – and to make only one Stage of it, the distance from this to the Latter Place being only 22 Miles. — We keep with us here only 2 light Carts to convey our Small Tents, Bedding – and Dining & Breakfast Utensils. —

The Horse belonging to the Constable who came with the Express yesterday from Stone-Quarry Creek, being a good deal knocked up, I have kept both the Man & Horse here for the whole of today to get properly refreshed; intending they should start at Daybreak tomorrow. —

I write again to Mrs. M. by this conveyance to inform her of our operations. —

We all retired to rest before 9,O'Clock tonight. —

Friday 20th. Octr.
At 5,O'Clock this morning we sat down to Breakfast, and at ½ past 6, we set out on our Journey, having previously dispatched our 2 light Baggage Carts. — We left a Case of Wine, a Tub of Corned Rounds of Beef, and 4 Bags of Corn at Mr. Throsby's for our Journey back from Throsby Park to Sydney – conceiving we had a sufficient quantity of those articles for our Journey forwards besides. — The first 12 miles of this Stage was through a very rich beautiful Country – well watered & wooded – and peculiarly well suited for Settlers. — The Road was also very good so far, but after these 12 miles, we entered a long dreary Brush of 7 miles in extent – barren and unprofitable Land – with several steep bad Hills, and abrupt Declivities, but containing abundance of most excellent useful Timber.

After passing through this long tiresome thick close Brush or Forest, we arrived at St. Patrick's River – a very pretty clear little Stream, running northerly – and with a good Bridge over it.

About a mile from this little Rivulet, we came to the Wallandilly River – about 12 Yards wide in most Parts, and a very fine Stream of Water being quite fresh. — The Ford however is very rough and Rocky – and I was afraid the Carriage would not be able to get across. — It however crossed it without any accident.

The Country here, immediately on crossing to the west Bank of the Wallandilly, changes it [sic] character – and becomes again rich and beautiful – and fit for all the purposes of man.

We encamped near the Ford on a very beautiful verdant Bank, commanding a fine view of the River and Park-like Country in the vicinity of our Camp. — I came in the Carriage thus far, but quitted it as soon as we had crossed the River, mounted my Horse, and took Mr. Meehan with me to view Mr. Hannibal Mc.Arthur's Establishment about four miles from our Camp. — We saw his Flocks & Herds feeding and rode as far as his Stockmen's Huts; Mr. M. having at this Place 1854 Sheep & 165 Head of Horned Cattle, in a very pretty situation near the River – and in most excellent Pasturage.

This however being a most eligible part of the Country to reserve for the Government Stock – as well as for a future Town and Township, I must warn Mr. Mc.Arthur to remove his Stock to some other part of the Country.

Mr. Mc.Arthur's Overseer (Geo: Claris) presented me with Two Wild Turkey Eggs, a Stuffed Squirell, [sic] and a Piece of Rock Chrystal, [sic] all being the Produce of the District of Wallandilly. He has also promised me, on my return, a stuffed wild Turkey – all which I intend for my dear Lachlan. — Dr. Reid had 2 Water Moles, and a Duck of a most curious Species, shot for him in the River. — I returned Home after a very pleasant Ride at 3,O'Clock – having first arrived at our present Ground from Throsby Park at ¼ past 12 at Noon – our Baggage having all arrived by ½ past 1,O'Clock. —We dined at 5 – drank Tea at 7 – and went to Bed at 9,O'Clock. —

Saturday 21. Octr. 1820.
Got up between 4 and 5,O'Clock this morning. — Breakfasted at ½ past 5 – sent off the Baggage at ½ past 6 – and Set out ourselves 10 minutes before 7 ,O'Clock. — The first 6 miles is a very good rich open Country – excellent Pasture and also fit for Cultivation. — At 8, Entered a thick Brush or Forest, along a winding rough Stoney Range – which extends for 5 miles – then pass through an open pretty Country of very fine Pasturage for two miles; after which enter a second Brush, with several very steep ascents and Descents, and extending to the River Cookbundoon – where I arrived in the Carriage at 20 mins. past 11 a.m. – and where we halt for this Day; – Pitching our Camp on the Right of this very pretty little Stream which is here about 6 Yards Broad only. — Some of the Light Baggage Carts came in with us – but the heavy ones did not get in to Camp for two Hours afterwards. — This Stage is 15 miles from our last – and we are now arrived within 30 miles of Bathurst Lake – the Place of rendezvous for the Commissioner and myself – and where I hope we shall arrive on Monday next. — We dined as usual at 5 – & went early to Bed.

Sunday 22. Octr. 1820.
Got up at 4 – Breakfasted at 5 – and sent off the Baggage at ¼ past 6 OClock – following it ourselves in a quarter of an Hour afterwards – Crossed the Cookbundoon River twice within Half a mile of each other. — At 5 mins. past 7 arrive at the foot of the Cookbundoon Range – disce. 2 miles. The ascent to the Top of this Range is very steep, rocky, and difficult – owing to the bad construction of the Road up it – the Turnings or Traverses being very short and abrupt. We had great labour and difficulty in getting the Baggage Carts up to the Top of the Mountain and it occupied upwards of two Hours to do so, and in descending the opposite side of the mountain to the western side. — I named this ascent and Descent "Wild's Pass", after Joseph Wild the Overseer of the Road Party, who are employed in constructing the Road in this new Country.

The Cookbundoon Range may be considered as the barrier between the Eastern & Western Country – and also the Key to the latter as well as to the Southern Country. — The distance across this Range from the foot of the East to the foot of the West side is about a mile. At a qr. past 9 a.m. we pursued our Journey through open Forest Land for two miles. — Arrive then at a very bad Swamp or Bog, which took us some time to pass, and on crossing it we entered a Brush, or Close Forest at ½ past 10,O'Clock. — This Brush continued for about 7 miles, and is full of Bogs or Swamps – which occasioned us a great deal of trouble and labour to cross and get the Carts through. My own Carriage Horses got once into one of these Bogs or Sloughs – and were only got out of it by being unharnessed. — At 45 mins. past 1, reached the left Bank of the principal Branch of the Wallandilly River – where the Country opens into fine Forest Land. — At 2 P.M. we crossed this River to the Right Bank by a very good Ford. —From thence we Travelled through a closer Forest Country, along the Banks of the River till it takes a Sudden Bend to the Westward, and where a Small Rivulet from the South East joins it; forming at this point of junction a most extensive beautiful Reach or Bason. [sic] — The Country here opens again, into very extensive Plains or Downs to the Westward, forming with the River a very rich Landscape, Plains, and occasional pretty little Hills interspersed in them, extending for 7 or 8 miles to the Westward. The Native name of these Plains is Mulwarry – but which I have named "Breadalbane Plains". — From the junction of the two Rivers we continue our Journey in a South Easterly Direction – till we reach the North West Boundary of "Goulburn Plains", – so named by Mr. Meehan the first discoverer, but which in fact is a continuation of the Great Mulwary-Plains. Here we halted at ¼ before 4 P.M. and Pitched our Camp in a noble extensive rich Meadow near a fine large Pond of Fresh Water; the Cattle being up to their Bellies in as fine long sweet Grass as I ever saw any where. — The distance from where we last crossed the Wallandilly River is about 4 miles to our present Camp; making this day's Journey at least 16 miles, and by far the most disagreeable Stage we have yet come; but the grandeur, beauty, and richness, independent of the usefulness of the Country we are now in, sufficiently Compensates for all the labour and Toils of this days Journey. —

We had not been above an Hour on our new Ground, before 3 of my Horses, Major Antill's, Lt. Macquarie's, Mr. Cartwright's, and 4 or 5 other Horses, quitted their Pasture and went off at full speed on the Road we had come by, without being disturbed – or any apparent cause. — Joseph and Denning mounted other Horses and set out immediately after them; but after 3 Hours pursuit they were only able to overtake a few of them with which they returned – the Night being too dark then to pursue the fugitives any farther; – the five first mentioned Horses and several others being still missing. —

We did not sit down to Dinner till ¼ past 6,O'Clock – and very soon afterwards it came on, very unfortunately, heavy Rain. — We retired to rest soon after 9,O'Clock, it still continuing to rain heavy.

Monday 23. Octr. !
It rained the greater part of last Night – but is fair this morning.

Dispatched Mills the 2d. Coachman, Vaughan the Constable, and one of the Natives, in search of the Runaway Horses, in the hope that they will come up with them between this and Wild's Pass. — These 3 men set out about 6,O'Clock this morning.

The Tents being very wet – and wishing to give time for the Horses to be brought back, I have determined to remain on our present Ground till 11,O'Clock.

We therefore delayed Breakfasting till 8,O'Clock. — This will give the Tents time to dry – there being now a good deal of Sun out. — Yesterday in crossing Wild's Pass, we fell in with Nagaray, a fine old Patriarchal Native of about 70 years of age with his whole Family of Wives, Sons, & Daughters – in all 8 persons – and all of whom Mr. Throsby had engaged to accompany us to the great Salt Water Lake recently discovered by Joseph Wild. — This old man belongs to the Burra-Burra Tribe, of which his son Cookoogong is the Chief. — His next eldest son Bhoohan is a very fine intelligent Lad. —

At 11 a.m. there being then no tidings of the Stray Horses, and the Tents being tolerably well Dried, we decamped and pursued our Journey across Goulburn Plains –a most beautiful rich Tract of Country, extending from "Breadalbane Plains" on the North to fine open Forest on the South, Twelve Miles in length – by Seven in Breadth generally – and containing not less than Fifty Thousand acres of useful good Land, fit for both purposes of Cultivation and Grazing – with a plentiful supply of Fresh Water Ponds, and hardly a Tree to be seen in this whole extent of Plain – but with plenty of good Timber on the Hills and Ridges which gird these Plains like a Belt. We saw several Flocks of fine large Emus – and some fine large Turkies [sic] – and hunted some of the former, but the Dogs being rather shy did not kill any. — The first Flock of 4 Emus which we saw were distant from us about 400 yards. — The moment they perceived us they halted to look at us. We also pulled up our Horses to look at them. — After they had reconnoitred us for a few minutes, they advanced towards us in a very bold majestic manner, at first walking smartly – but slackening their pace as they came nearer to us – until they had actually advanced within 15 Yards of us. — They then halted and looked at us – and we might have shot them all with the greatest ease had we had either Guns or Pistols – but we had neither – nor had we then even the Dogs with us. On slight movement of one of our horses; and after they looked at us halting for a few seconds, they took the alarm and galloped off in a fine style. — This was one of the prettiest sights I ever saw.

We only saw one Kangaroo in this whole days march – but that was a large Forester – and was killed by Mr. Throsby's Dogs in the Brush adjoining Bathurst Lake. — At 6. P.M. we arrived at the North West end of the Lake, and at 7, we reached the Eastern Extremity of it – just at Dark – and after a long fatiguing march of 24 miles – both our Men and Cattle being very much fatigued – especially the latter. The first view we had of the Lake was really magnificently fine, from the Heights to the Northwest of it – appearing quite a little Sea, covered with innumerable Flocks of Wild Ducks – and a great many Black Swans – which last looked most beautiful floating on the surface of this grand Piece of Water which is perfectly fresh and good. — The Lake appears to be about Six miles in length by 4 miles in Breadth – and has considerably increased in Size since Mr. Meehan first discovered it in April 1818. — There are very fine extensive Plains on the East side of the Lake and also on the South East of it & likewise a very long marshy meadow on the East of it. — The Men who went in pursuit of the Horses returned this Evening between 7 & 8 with 3 of them, vizt. Donald, Driver, & Lt. Macquarie's; but Major Antill's & 1 Carriage Horse (Lofty) are still missing.

I was rather disappointed in not finding Commissioner Bigge and his Party at Bathurst Lake before me, as this was fixed upon as the Place of Rendezvous – and as he had fixed to leave Bathurst on Wednesday the 18th. Instant now Six days complete – and the distance he had to travel not being more than 120 miles. — I trust however he will be here tomorrow. — Being all of us a little tired – we retired to rest very soon after we had dined – which was not till Half past 8,O'Clock. — We had been all Eight Hours on Horseback this Day. —

Tuesday 24. Octr. —
Being rather indisposed, I did not get up till 7,O'Clock this morning, when I took a little opening Medicine, and we did not Breakfast till 8,O'Clock. Mr. Throsby wishing to reconnoitre in person the great Salt Water Lake about 20 miles to the South East of our present station, recently discovered by Joseph Wild, set out this morning between 7 & 8 o'clock for that purpose, attended by Wild, Vaughan the Constable, and two Native Guides, and intending to return this Night if possible. — At ½ past 12, I rode out along with Mr. Meehan to examine the adjoining Country to the Southward and Eastward of our present station, going out by the Eastern Shore of the Lake to its Southern Extremity – and returning Home by a different Route still more Easterly. — We travelled over some very fine Tracts of rich Pasture Land. — The Plains immediately East of the Lake, including the great Marsh in the Center of them, with the exception of the latter, is excellent Soil – and well suited for both Cultivation and Pasture. — They are about 4 miles in length by 3 in Breadth, and combining these fine Plains with the adjoining grand Lake – skirted on three sides by High Hills covered with Wood, form altogether a most beautiful Landscape.

On my way Home I shot a very fine large Wild Turkey, weighing at least Eighteen Pounds, with very rich variegated beautiful Plumage. I brought this fine Bird Home to our Camp alive – and entertain some hopes of being able to carry him Home in the same state to my dear Lachlan.

Admiring these Plains as I do, I have given them the name of that distinguished Military Hero The Duke of Wellington, by calling them "Wellington Plains". After a very pleasant Ride of about 12 miles, we arrived in Camp at ½ past 3,O'Clock. —

Waited Dinner for the Commissioner till ½ past 6 and then despairing of seeing him tonight we dined, Drank Tea at the usual Hour – and went to Bed a little after Ten, having previously written a Letter to my dear Mrs. M. to go by Dr. Reid.

Wednesday 25. Octr.
Waked quite refreshed – and perfectly free of Headache this morning – the opening Medicine I took yesterday morning having done me a great deal of good. —

Our worthy good Travelling Companion Dr. Reid took his leave of us, and set out on his return to Sydney at Half past 5 this morning – having first taken an early Breakfast. The Revd. Mr. Cartwright and Mr. Meehan gave him a convoy for some miles on the Road. — We all much regret Dr. Reid's departure, as we found him a most agreeable, good humuored,[sic] and entertaining friend and associate. — He was, however, obliged to leave us here – being afraid of not overtaking his ship (the Morley) at Sydney in case he staid with us any longer. —

We Breakfasted at ½ past 8, and at 10. Joseph Wild returned with a Note from Mr. Throsby – from the great Lake – to which he reports loaded Carts may go from hence easily enough by removing some Dead fallen Timber – which he has directed to be done – and also to mark the Route we are to Travel by with the Carts. — Mr. Throsby states the distance from our present station to the Wee-ree-wa Lake to be only 16 miles, and confirms Wild's account of the Beauty and fertility of the Lands in the vicinity of it. — Mr. Throsby remains at the Lake till we come up with him there. — We shall therefore follow him tomorrow in case the Commissioner arrives today, which I sincerely hope he will do, as time, and the State of our Stock of Provisions, will not admit of our remaining here Stationary any longer.

— At ½ past 2. I rode out accompanied by Major Antill and Mr. Meehan to explore the Country to the North West of our present Station, returning Home by the South East, thus encircling the whole of Wellington Plains, distance about 7 miles and all good Land. — Before I came Home I fixed on the Site of the future Township for this fine District immediately to the Eastward of the Low Range of Hills skirting the Eastern Shore of "Bathurst Lake".

We returned home to Camp at ½ past 4,O'Clock – and was a good deal disappointed at not finding the Commissioner arrived. — I do not now expect to see him this Day. —

Taking it into serious consideration that we started from Home Ten days ago with only 21 Days provisions for the numbers we then calculated to be victualled during that time, and that some few more People have since been added to our Victualling List – that Half the time is already elapsed – that it will take us at least 5 days more to go to see the new discovered Lake and River and to return to this station – and six days more to return from this to Cumberland, I have come to the resolution, as the most advisable measure, under our present circumstances, not to wait for the Commissioner any longer – but to proceed early tomorrow morning without him to see the New Lake and River – whither he will of course follow us in case he should arrive here tomorrow or on the following day – of which resolution I shall advise him by Letter before I quit my present Camp; where I have resolved on leaving all my heavy Baggage, my Carriage & Carriage Horses, my large Tent standing – and also my Bedstead and heavy Camp Furniture, for the Commissioner to make use of if he thinks proper. I have accordingly given the necessary directions to Major Antill and the Servants to prepare for prosecuting our Journey very early tomorrow morning.

We dined at 6 – and went early to Bed. —

Thursday 26. Octr. !
We all got up between 4 and 5 O'Clock this morning – and Breakfasted at ½ past 5. —

The Carts were all loaded, and we were just in the act of mounting our Horses – when Mr. Jno. Rowley galloped into Camp with a Letter from the Commissioner announcing his approach and his arrival at 3,O'Clock yesterday afternoon at Goulburn Plains – and intimating his intention of being with me here early this Day.

I therefore ordered the Carts to be unloaded, and the Tents to be repitched – to await the arrival of the Commissioner on our present Ground, so as to proceed together early tomorrow morning to the Great Lake. — In the meantime I wrote him a note and sent it off at 7,O'Clock by a mounted Servant to inform [him] that I had postponed moving till he should join me. —

At 8. a.m. I sent off a mounted Servant to Mr. Throsby at the great Lake, with a supply of Prog & Grog, and to apprize him that we remain here for this day – but that we shall join him tomorrow; as he intends remaining at the Lake till our arrival. —

At 11. a.m. I rode out accompanied by Major Antill, to meet Commissr. Bigge and his Suite & at 12 we met 4 miles from our present Camp. — He was attended by Mr. Secry. Scott, Mr. Oxley, Mr. Cordeaux, and Dr. Hill – and also by Chas. Fraser, the Colonial Botanist, besides a numerous Retinue of Servants – all mounted, having 7 Pack Horses to carry their Baggage. — They [left] Bathurst on Wednesday the 18th. Instant and have been 9 days on the way – the distance (measured) from Bathurst Town to Bathurst Lake being 138 miles. — The Commissr. and Suite have all arrived in good Health – but a little tired with their Journey. — We all rode into Camp together and arrived there at 1. P.M.; George having Wine, Biscuit, and Oranges prepared for the Travellers, of which they partook. We afterwards walked about the Camp – or read – or talked till 5,O'Clock – when we dined – Drank Tea at 7 – and went to Bed at 9,O'Clock; intending to set out for the Great Lake early in the morning, – accompanied by the Commissioner & his Suite.

Friday 27. Octr. !
At ½ past 6 a.m. Breakfasted and at ½ past sent off the whole of our Baggage for the Great Lake, following it ourselves immediately after. For the first 6 miles we travelled through Plains and open Forest – then got into a broken Hilly Country for about Six Miles more. — At the distance of about 4 miles from it, and from the Top of a Hill on the Left of the Road, we had a partial view of the Great Lake, which even at that distance looked very fine. –

X X The last 4 miles to the Lake was through fine open Forest Land – or Rich Plains, X X

[insert in text]
X X X X This was a very beautiful Tract of fine open Forest land, but chiefly clear of Timber & rich Land – I therefore called it "Campbell Plains" in Honor of Mrs. Macquarie —
[end of insert]

and at 1. P.M. we reached the North East Shore of it; but where we could only see about one Half of it. At this Point however we were all most highly gratified and delighted with this noble expanse of Water, and the Surrounding Scenery. — The Baggage proceeding on by a more direct course, we rode along the Summits of the Ridges which gird the Lake in order to obtain a fuller and more complete view of it – and from every succeeding Hill our admiration of the magnificence and size of this noble Sheet of Water encreased [sic]. — We proceeded on from where we first made it for 4 miles farther along the Eastern Shore of it, and then encamped at 3. P.M. on a very pretty Plain, near a fresh Water Creek, distant about nine miles from the North west Extremity of the Lake, and 20 miles from our last Ground. This Situation was recommended by Mr. Throsby by a note he had left with one of his men for me; having gone on himself early this morning to the Southern extremity of the Lake to try to get hold of some of the Natives of this part of the Country to serve as Guides to conduct us to the New River Murumbidgee.

We were all a little tired after our Journey to this beautiful Lake, the day being very warm & Sultry.

At 6. P.M. Dined – Drank Tea at ½ past 7 – and went to Bed at Nine.

Saturday 28. Octr. —
Got up at 5. OClock after a very refreshing good night's rest, and Breakfasted at Half past 6. — Mr. Throsby not having returned from his Excursion as was expected he would do, either last Night or very early this morning, we determined on going in quest of him – and to explore the Southern part of the Lake, and the adjacent Country, for which purpose we set out at 8,O'Clock, attended by some of our Servants, leaving the rest in charge of our Camp, which we left standing. — We travelled over an open Hilly Country for about 3 miles along the East side of the Lake, and at 9, saw a Smoke on the Western Side of the Lake – which we concluded proceeded from a Signal Fire made by Mr. Throsby – which was soon confirmed to be the case by our Seeing with our Glasses Mr. Throsby himself riding along the Shore of the Lake on his way back to our Camp; but as we all wished to see the Southern extremity of this fine Piece of Water, we pursued our ride thither to meet Mr. Throsby; – our way lying through a very great extent of Flat Land – composed of Open Forest, Plains, and Meadows for 7 or 8 miles at least – the Soil generally good, fine Herbage, and full of fine large Ponds & Lagoons of Fresh Water. — These Ponds were full of Black Swans, Native Companions, and Ducks – and when we came to the South end of the Lake it was covered with innumerable Flocks of Black Swans, Ducks, and Sea Gulls. — We tasted the Water of the Lake here, and it was quite fresh. — After having viewed and explored the Southern Extremity of the Lake we proceeded along the Western Shore of it for about a mile in hopes of meeting Mr. Throsby until such time as we discovered the Track of his Horse back the same way we came – from which it was evident he had passed the Plains to the Southward of our Track out. — We therefore returned back to Camp nearly the same way we came after a ride out of at least 12 miles – and as much Home again; halting between 2 & 3 OClock under a Tree about the middle of the Plains, and close to a fine running Fresh Water Creek, to take some Refreshment – which I had directed to be carried out for us. — These Plains being likely to terminate my present Tour of Inspection Southerly, I have named them in Honor of the Noble Chief of the Campbells – "Argyle Forest". It now appears evident that there is no outlet – or River flowing from this Lake – which is the more extraordinary as the Waters of it are now proved to be positively Fresh – and the size of it so great – it being at least Eighteen Miles long by five Broad. —

We arrived in Camp at ¼ before 5 – and found Mr. Throsby had arrived there about Half a mile before us. — He now states to us from the information of his Native Guide Taree that the new River Murumbidgee, which we came in quest of and were all so particularly anxious to see and explore, does not flow from the Great Lake at all – but that it has its source at the back of the Hills which skirt the Western Shore of the Lake, and flows from thence in a South Easterly Direction towards the Coast – and that it would take us three days to reach it. — We have consequently abandoned all thoughts of going to explore the new River at this time, leaving it to be traced to the Sea by future Discoverers.

We sat down to Dinner today at ½ past 5, and after Dinner we drank a Bumper Toast to the Success of the Future Settlers of the Shores of "Lake George" – which name I have given to this grand and magnificent Sheet of Water in Honor of His present Majesty. —

We drank Tea early – and went to Bed at ½ past 9. —

Sunday 29 Octr. 1820.
We all got up early – and Breakfasted at ½ past 5 OClock –; intending to return Home by the same Route we came – having now seen all we wished excepting the new promised River – which we cannot now afford time to explore. — The Tents were accordingly struck – and the Carts being all loaded they were sent off at ½ past 7,O'Clock – ourselves setting out at the same Hour. —

The Sun very soon got very hot – and we had rather a warm ride back to Bathurst Lake – where we arrived ourselves at ½ past 12 at Noon – the Baggage not arriving till 2,O'Clock. — We hunted and killed a Native Dog within Half a Mile of our Camp at Bathurst Lake. —

At 4 P.M. the whole of our Party, including our Servants, Carters &c. &c. being assembled in, and immediately under the Fly of my large Tent (which had been left standing here) the Revd. Mr. Cartwright performed Divine Worship, and gave us a very excellent appropriate Sermon, strongly impressing the justice, good Policy, and expediency of Civilizing the Aborigines, or Black Natives of the Country and Settling them in Townships. —

We dined at 6,O'Clock, drank Tea at ½ past 7 – and went to Bed at 9,O'Clock. —

Monday 30. Octr.
It rained very heavy all Night – and continued to do so till 6,O'Clock this morning when it ceased – and we made the necessary preparations for movement. — We did not Breakfast however till 7,O'Clock, – having got up rather later than usual. The Baggage was packed up, and sent off at a quarter before 9 – and we set out ourselves at the same time. — My Big Tent being very heavy in consequence of the Rain of last night, took a long time to strike and Pack up. —

We went this stage by the same Route we came; only deviating ourselves a little from it for the purpose of Hunting in "Goulburn Plains" where we killed one large Emu and a Native Dog. — The Commissioner's Servants also killed a large Kangaroo in the open Forest before we entered the Plains.

Wishing to get as far forward on our Journey as possible, in consequence of the great appearance of Rainy Weather setting in tonight, we pursued our Journey beyond the part of Goulburn Plains in our advance until we reached the Wallandilly River, 5 miles further on – crossing that River at a good Ford, and Encamping on the Left Bank of it, on a very pretty spot of Ground, close to the River – and where we arrived at 4,O'Clock; the distance from Bathurst Lake to our present Ground being at least 24 miles. —

The heavy Baggage did not come up till 5,O'Clock, and then a Drissling [sic] Rain came on, attended with a Sharp Cold Wind from the North East. — Our Tents were immediately Pitched and we got under cover of them immediately, with good large Fires made in front of them. —

We dined at 6, drank Tea at ½ past 7 – and went to Bed at Nine o'clock – it still raining lightly. —

Tuesday 31. Octr. —
We all got up at 5,O'Clock, Dressed, and Breakfasted at 6. — There had been a light Rain all Night – which still continues. — The Tents of course are all wet and very heavy. They were however struck and Packed up as soon as we had Breakfasted – and the whole of the Baggage was sent off by a quarter past 7. We set out ourselves at the same Hour, the Rain soon afterwards discontinuing. — We travelled by the same Route we advanced – only in some Places avoiding the bad Bogs. — Wild's Pass, on the Cookbundoon Range had been considerably improved by the Road makers since we had passed it before, and made much easier for the Wheel Carriages to pass it. — At ¼ past 11. a.m. we arrived on our former Ground on the Right Bank of the Cookbundoon River – but the last of the heavy Baggage did not come up till a quarter past 1. P.M. — The Tents were then immediately Pitched, it being now a fine warm Sunny Day – and will soon dry them. — In the interval between our own arrival and that of our Baggage, I took a ride with the Commissioner on the Road to Wallandilly for about a couple of miles to shew him the Country in the vicinity of this Station. — We dined today at 5 o'clock – and drank Tea & retired to Bed at the usual Hours. — It threatened Rain very much when we went to Bed. — On my arrival this day at our present Camp, I Purchased four very pretty young Emus (Hatched at the same time and about 2 months old) and a very little Rock Kangaroo, from Joseph Wild, the Overseer of the Road Party, as Presents for my beloved Lachlan. I have also brought on a young Swan for him, which was caught by Mr. Throsby's men at "Lake George", – all which I hope will get safe to Parramatta, and must prove highly acceptable.

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Macquarie, Lachlan. Tour of Inspection of Western and Southern Counties, 16 October - 6 November 1820
Original held in the Mitchell Library, Sydney.
ML Ref: A782 1-18ff.; [Microfilm Reel: CY301 Frames #166-243].

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