Image Map
Journal of a Tour
of Governor Macquarie's
first Inspection of the
Interior of the Colony,
Commencing on Tuesday,
the 6th of Novr. 1810

Tuesday 6th. Novr. 1810.---
At 6 p.m. I set out from Sydney, accompanied by Mrs. Macquarie in the Carriage, and arrived at 1/2 past 7 p.m. at Parramatta -- distance 16 miles.---

Wednesday 7th.---
At 6 a.m. Set out on Horseback, accompanied by Mrs. M. Capt. Antill and Mr. Meehan for George's River, and arrived at Mr. Moore's House at 8 o'clock, having crossed the River in a Boat opposite to Mr. Moore's House, where Mrs. Moore had Breakfast ready prepared for us. -- Our Horses were sent up the River to cross at a Ford three miles above where we crossed.

Between 10 and 12 o'clock, we all set out in a Boat, Dr. Redfern having previously joined, and accompanied by Mr. Moore, to view and survey the Ground intended for the new Township, which lies about a mile higher up the River above Mr. Moore's on the Left Bank of it. ---We landed near Mr. Laycock's House, and having surveyed the Ground and found it in every respect eligible and fit for the purpose, I determined to erect a Township on it, and named it Liverpool in honor of the Earl of that Title -- now the Secretary of State for the Colonies. -- The Acting Surveyor Mr. Meehan was at the same [time] directed to mark out the Ground for the Town, with a Square in the Center thereof, for the purpose of having a Church hereafter erected within it.---

After walking over the Ground for the new Town, we returned to the Boat, in which we proceeded for two miles higher up the River, until our progress was stopt [sic] by Trees fallen into the Bed of it. -- We then returned to Mr. Moore's House again, and leaving Mrs. M. there, we set out at 2 p.m. on Horse-back to view the Farms situated along the Right Bank of the River to the Southward of Mr. Moore's and towards Botany Bay. -- Some of the Farms we passed through were very well cultivated and had promising Fields of Wheat. -- We ended our Tour for this day at a Farm belonging to Dr. McCallum and occupied by a man of the name of Wells, being a ride of about 7 or 8 miles along the River, and then returned by a short way across the Country to Mr. Moore's House of only a Couple of Miles, and arrived at 1/2 past 4 o'clock there. -- Mrs. Moore had an excellent Dinner prepared for us.---

Thursday 8th.---
It rained very heavy all last Night and continued so to do the greater part of this day. ---At 2 p.m. it cleared up a little, and I set out on Horseback, accompanied by Mr. Moore, Dr. Redfern, Capt. Antill and Mr. Meehan, to view the Farms in the Minto District and to the Westward of George's River. -- We crossed the Ford 3 miles above Mr. Moore's, and passing through Guise's Farm, Dr. Throsbey's, Mr. Meehan's, Mr. Lewin's, Mr. Brookes's, Dr. Townson's &c. to Mr. Thompson's Farm called St. Andrews, we halted a little while there to look at this excellent Farm belonging to our late worthy Friend, which we found in excellent order and in a most improving flourishing state.---This and Dr. Townson's Farm are by far the finest soil and best Pasturage I have yet seen in the Colony -- the Grounds are beautiful, and bounded by a large Creek of Brackish Water called Bunbury Curran. -- In this Excursion, I saw some Fields of fine promising Wheat, and several numerous Flocks of Sheep and Herds of Horned Cattle. -- From St. Andrews, we returned straight home to Mr. Moore's, where we arrived about 6 o'clock in the Evening, after a very pleasant ride of Twenty miles going and coming. ---It rained a little but not to wet us much.---

Friday 9th.---
At 6 a.m. I set out to see the remaining Farms in the Banks Town District towards Botany Bay along George's River, and on Harris's Creek. -- After we had looked at the southernmost Farm on the latter Creek, we crossed the Country with the intention of returning home by the upper part of George's River in a South West direction; but missing our way we lost ourselves in the Woods and wandered about in a boundless Forest for upwards of three hours without knowing where we were. -- At length we stumbled on the River, and got home a good deal tired about 1/2 past 10 o'clock; finding Mrs. M. and Mrs. Moore waiting impatiently for our return. ---Breakfast was ready for us and we soon got over all our fatigues.

I had sent Mr. Meehan early in the morning to lay out the Ground for the Town of Liverpool, which deprived us of his Services as a Guide, and good honest Mr. Moore had never before explored that part of the Country in which we had lost ourselves this morning. ---We must have rode at least 20 miles before Breakfast.

After resting ourselves and our Horses for a Couple of Hours, I set out to explore the remaining Farms in the Minto District, and to look once more at the scite [sic] of the intended Town of Liverpool, leaving Mrs. M. to follow and meet me in the afternoon at Dwyer's Farm along with Capt. Antill; it being our intention to return in the Evening again to Parramatta, and therefore now took leave of our kind Hostess Mrs. Moore, from whose I set out with Mr. Moore &c. &c. at 1 o'clock, crossing the River in the Boat to meet our Horses on the opposite Bank.---

We proceeded first to Liverpool, where having marked out the Square for the Church &c. &c. I continued my Tour to the adjoining Farms belonging to Holt, Burn, Develin &c. &c. and ended it at Dwyer's, where I found Mrs. M. and Capt. Antill waiting for us. -- Here we took leave of our worthy Guide & conductor Mr. Moore, who returned home, and we pursued our way to Parramatta, where we arrived at 1/2 past 5 o'clock in the Evening; and Mr. Broughton, who had come to me on business to George's River, dined with us.

Saturday 10th.---
I made an Excursion this day to visit the different Farms in the Districts of the Ponds, Field of Mars, and Eastern Farms, being accompanied part of the way in the Carriage by Mrs. M. whom I left at Mr. Marsden's Farm of One-Tree-Hill, whilst I rode on Horseback to see the intermediate ones lying between that and Kissing Point, which was the extent of my Tour this day. -- I was accompanied on this Excursion by the Revd. Mr. Marsden, Mr. Blaxland &c. &c. -- I went with the latter Gentleman to see his Farm the Brush, which is a very snug good Farm and very like an English one in point of comfort and convenience. -- I looked at a great many Farms this day, some of which were well cultivated and promise tolerable good Crops of Wheat. -- But the Houses in general are miserably bad, and their Inhabitants poorly clothed & poorly fed. ---We returned home to Dinner between 5 & 6 o'clock and Mr. Blaxland dined with us.---

Sunday 11th.
Went to Church with Mrs. M. and Mrs. Bent, who with her Husband had come last night to live with us here for a few days. -- There was a numerous and respectable Congregation at Church and Mr. Marsden gave us a very good sermon. ---

Monday 12th.---
I rode out early this morning to look at the new Road lately begun between Parramatta and the Hawkesbury. -- I was accompanied by Dr. Redfern and Horrax the Contractor of the Road, and after going on for 3 miles of it, we returned home to Breakfast, much pleased with the new line of Road to the Hawkesbury as far as it is finished.---

After Breakfast I accompanied Mrs. M. and Mrs. Bent in the Carriage as far as Dr. Wentworth's Farm in the District of Liberty Plains 7 miles from Parramatta, and afterwards to Mr. Blaxland's Salt Pans in the same District near the Flats, returning home to Dinner. -- Mrs. Bayly and Mrs. Birch, and Mr. & Mrs. Marsden dined with us today. -- I felt myself very bilious all this day, and therefore took some medicine at Night on going to Bed.---

Tuesday 13th.---
I remained at Home all this day, being rather indisposed. -- Mr. Campbell the Secretary and Capt. Glenholme came up from Sydney this afternoon on a visit to us and dined with us.---

Wednesday 14th.---
At Noon I set out in the Carriage along with Mrs. M. and Mrs. Bent, and accompanied by Secry. Campbell, Mr. Hassall, Dr. Redfern, Capt. Antill & Mr. Blaxland to view the Farms in the Districts of the Field of Mars, Northern Boundary, Dundas, and Baulkham-Hills. -- We rode through a great number of Farms in this excursion, ending it with those of Baulkham Hills -- at which last Place we halted for a little while at the House of Mr. McDougall one of the most respectable Settlers in that District. -- The Farms I visited were in general in good order and well cultivated; but the Crops did not look well, and the Habitations of the Settlers were in general miserably bad and their own Dress still worse. -- We returned home to Dinner by the Castle-hill Road after a ride of about 20 miles in this day's Excursion. ---

Thursday 15th.---
I sent off our Servants and Baggage this morning for the Cow Pastures, in two Carts, escorted by Serjt. Whalan of the Body Guard. ---

At 12 o'clock I set out on an Excursion to visit some of the Farms which I had not yet seen in the Field of Mars lying on the East side of Parramatta River; being accompanied by Mr. Bent, Secretary Campbell, Dr. Redfern, Capt. Antill, and Mr. Meehan. -- The principal Farms we visited were those of Macdonald, Ramsay, and Archer and Connor, all prettily situated; the three former on the Banks of the River and the latter retired within the Forest. -- We all returned home to Dinner after a ride of about 12 miles in this day's Excursion. ---

Friday 16th. Novr. 1810 ! ---
At 6 o'clock this morning Mrs. Macquarie and myself set out in the Carriage from Parramatta for the Cow-Pastures. -- We were accompanied on this Tour by Captains Antill and Cleaveland, our nephew Ensign Jno. Maclaine, Doctor Redfern, Mr. Meehan the Acting Surveyor, and Mr. Gregory Blaxland; and on the Road near Prospect Hill, we were joined by John Warlby Free Settler there, and whom I had engaged to attend me as a Guide in the Cow-Pastures. -- Serjeant Whalan and three Troopers accompanied us as a Guard. -- Passing through the Orphan-School Farm, the Government Stock-Yard close to the Cabramatta Creek, and Messrs. Riley's and Kent's Farms, we arrived at the Government Hut close to the East Bank of the Nepean River at Half past 9 o'clock, being a distance of 26 measured miles in three Hours and a half. -- The Country through which we passed between Parramatta and the Nepean was generally an open Forest, a tolerable good Soil, and the Road pretty good. -- There being very little Water in the River at this time, we crossed it at the usual Ford in our Carriage with great ease and safety; -- and we found our Servants, with the two Carts containing our Baggage, ready waiting for us on the opposite Bank of the River; having one of the small Tents ready Pitched for us to Breakfast in. -- It came on a Drizzling Rain as soon as we had crossed the River but which did not continue long. -- We Breakfasted immediately, and set out immediately afterwards on our Journey to the Place we intended to Halt at and make our Head Quarters. -- We passed through Mr. McArthur's first Farm, called by the natives "Benkennie", and arrived at our Halting Place, called "Bundie", at half past 1 o'clock in the afternoon, being six miles in a South West Direction from the Ford. --We came in the Carriage all the way, through a very fine rich Country and open Forest, and on the way to our Ground we met two or three small Parties of the Cow-Pastures Natives -- the Chief of whom in this Part is named Koggie; who with his wife Nantz, and his friends Bootbarrie, Young Bundle, Billy, and their respective Wives, came to visit us immediately on our arrival at Bundie.

The Servants and Baggage did not reach the Ground till after 3 o'clock in the afternoon and immediately on their arrival our Tents were Pitched and our little Camp was formed on a beautiful Eminence near a Lagoon of fine fresh Water -- the Tents fronting the South West -- in a very fine open Forest within about 3 miles of the foot of Mount Taurus -- and Four Mount Hunter; the latter being to the Northward, and the former to the Southward of us.

At 5 p.m. we sat down Eight at Table to a most comfortable Dinner; Mrs. M. tho' so young a Campaigner having provided every requisite to make our Tour easy, pleasant, and happy -- and we all feel much pleased with one-another -- and with our present manner of Life. Being all a little tired, we went early to Bed this Night, after placing Fires around us, and a Watch to guard us from the Wild Cattle.

Saturday 17th.---
We got up pretty early -- and during the Night we heard the Wild Cattle Bellowing in the Woods. -- Mr. Blaxland and Warlby went out early in the morning and shot a Wild Bull, which was brought in to Camp for the use of Servants and our other numerous attendants. ---

Having Breakfasted, we set out at half past 10 o'clock on an Excursion to explore the Country to the Southward and Westward as far as Stone-Quarry-Creek, distant about Ten miles from our Camp. -- We all went on Horseback, some part of the way being too hilly, and the Forest too close to admit of Travelling Comfortably in a Carriage. -- In the course of this Day's Excursion, which was through a beautiful rich Country consisting of Open Forest and Hills and Dales, we met with several numerous Herds of the Wild Cattle, which we approached very nearly and hunted down Five Calves, three of which being Male ones were sent Home to be reserved for Veal for our Table; but the remaining two, which were Female ones I gave as Presents to John Warlby our Guide, and Wm. Cosgrove, a Free Man, Servant to Mr. Blaxland, to bring up and rear on their own account respectively.

Mr. Meehan in hunting the Wild Cattle had the misfortune to be thrown from his Horse and dislocated his Arm; but Doctor Redfern having come shortly after to his assistance, immediately set his arm again, so as to secure his still preserving and recovering the use of it. ---

On our way to Stone-Quarry-Creek and about Six Miles South West from Bundie, we had a view of the Nepean River and remained for some time on the Banks of it, --which are very steep and stony on both sides. -- We then pursued our Excursion to Stone Quarry Creek, crossed it, and travelled about a quarter of a mile on the West side of it; after which we recrossed it and returned home by nearly the same route we went; crossing both times the Quiraway Creek in a very pretty part of the Country. -- The Nepean where we saw it this day ran North West and South East. -- We got back to our little Camp at Bundie at 5 o'clock in the Evening with keen appetites for Dinner and highly pleased with our Excursion. ---

Sunday 18th.---
Being rather a little fatigued after our Excursion of yesterday, we took a good long sleep and did not Breakfast till Nine o'clock this morning; and while we were at it, we were visited by Mrs. McArthur, who had come the Evening before to the Cow Pastures to look after her Farms and fine numerous Flocks of Sheep in this part of the Country. -- As we asked Mrs. McArthur to dine with us today, she expressed a desire to ride about the Country with us during this day's Excursion, which was of course readily assented to. -- We accordingly set out on Horseback from Bundie at 11 o'clock to visit Mount Taurus and Mount Hunter, both of which are close in the vicinity of our little Camp; the former being about 4 miles S.W. of it, and the latter about 6 miles N. West of it. -- We first ascended Mount Taurus, riding to the very top of it, from which we had a very fine extensive Prospect of the whole of circumjacent Country. -- From Mount Taurus we proceeded by a long Ridge of Hills to Mount Hunter, and on the way thither met two or three Herds of the Wild Cattle, which allowed us to come very near them; and one of the Herds at first made directly at us but were scared away from us by the noise and shouting of our Guide and other Attendants. The view from the summit of Mount Hunter was also very fine and extensive; but I confess I was much disappointed with respect to the Height of both it and Mount Taurus, which hardly deserve to be called Mountains, and would only be classed as Hills in most other Country. -- We returned home. by a different route from Mount Hunter, through a fine open Forest, to our Tents at Bundie, where we arrived about 2 o'clock; and after resting ourselves there a little while and taking some refreshment, we all set out to see Manangle a fine extensive Farm of 2000 acres belonging to Mr. Walter Davidson, situated on the Banks of the Nepean, and distant only about three miles from our Camp South East of it. -- It is a beautiful situation and excellent rich Land for both Tillage and Pasture, with a fine large Lagoon in the Center of it, which is called Manangle, and is the native name of this Farm. -- After looking at the River Nepean here and viewing the Farm, we returned to Camp again at 5 o'clock to Dinner, which we found ready for us. -- This Day's Excursion was highly gratifying, and I saw a great deal of fine rich Country every where I travelled. --- Mrs. McArthur left us after Dinner and returned to her own Farm at Benkennie. In the Evening Koggie, the Native Chief of the Cow-Pasture Tribe, and his wife and half a dozen more Natives, favored us with an Extraordinary sort of Dance after their own manner, and with which we were all very much pleased. -- They were treated a Glass of Spirits each, before they began the Dance, with which they were much pleased and which had a wonderful good effect on their spirits in performing their Dance.-- The following are the names of the Natives (not including some children) who honored us with their company and attendance during our stay at Bundie: -- vzt.-- Koggie and his two wives Nantz and Mary, Bootbarrie & his wife Mary, Young Bundle, Mandagerry, Jindle and Bill: Total 9 grown up Persons, besides 4 or 5 Children of different ages.---

During this day's Excursion we were-attended by some of the Natives, one of whom amused us very much by climbing up a high Tree to catch a Guanna, which he did in a very dextrous manner. In the course of our morning ride we were also much entertained with a Fight between some wild Bulls of two different Herds, which had accidentally met in consequence of being chased by some of our attendants.

Monday 19th.---
Having seen all the Land in this Neighbourhood and also several different Herds (amounting in all perhaps to about 600 Head) of the Wild Cattle, I determined on breaking up our little Camp at Bundie this morning after Breakfast and recrossing the Nepean, after viewing the Land to the Northward of Mr. McArthur's Farms on this same side of the River. ---We all set out accordingly at half past 9 o'clock, having left our Baggage and Servants to follow us leisurely to the River. We called at Benkennie on Mrs. McArthur, with whom we sat for a little while in a small miserable Hut, and then pursued our way to the Ford, where we arrived at 11 o'clock; and having sent the Carriage across, we mounted our Horses to look at the Country in this Neighbourhood for a few miles to the Northward. --- We rode through some tolerable good Land but generally very inferior to that to the Southward; --- Our Excursion extended only to Hunter's Creek, about 4 miles to the North West of the Ford, and from thence we came back by a different route. -- No Wild Cattle were seen in this ride, tho' it was evident from their traces and Dung that they had been grazing lately in this part of the Country. ---We got back to the Ford at Half past 1 o'clock and found our Servants and Baggage just arrived there and in the act of crossing it; which they took a great while in performing, one of the Carts having broken down in the middle of the River. --- Having marked out the Ground for our Camp on the East side of the River, where we had resolved to halt for a Night; I set out, accompanied by Capt. Antill, and my Guide Warlby, to explore the Country to the Southward on the Right Bank of the Nepean River; --- leaving Mrs. Macquarie in Camp, with the rest of our Suite excepting Mr. Blaxland, who took his leave of us to return home as soon as we crossed the River. --- It was 2 o'clock when I set out, and we rode at a pretty smart rate for an hour and a half, which brought us to a part of the Country called by the natives Nowenong, immediately opposite to Manangle Mr. Davidson's Farm, at which we had been yesterday; -- and from this Point I rode along the Bank of the River for about a mile farther up, to where the Bed of it becomes much wider, but the Right Bank begins to be rocky; and it appearing very rough and barren as far as I could see along this side of the River and for a great way to the Eastward of it, I did not think it necessary to extend my Excursion farther to the Southward; the more especially as my further progress was unexpectedly interrupted by a deep Gully or Creek extending from the River in an Easterly direction. The distance I rode from the Ford to this Point of the River, I calculated to be about Seven Miles, having been compelled to travel by a very circuitous route, owing to the numerous Swamps, Creeks, and Lagoons we were obliged to wind round in the course of our ride. ---The Country I rode through was generally very indifferent, and unfit for Tillage, but some of it is good Pasturage, and we met some Herds of Black Cattle and some Flocks of Sheep belonging to Mr. Robert Campbell of Sydney grazing in Nowenong not far from the Banks of the River. --- In going to the River we passed close to the Foot of the High Hill of Bajelling leaving it on our left, and we returned nearly the same way to Camp, but by a shorter route to avoid the Bendings of the River, Lagoons, and Swamps we had to wind round in coming to Nowenong. ---We arrived at our Tents which we found ready Pitched at Kirboowallie (the Native name of the Country near the Ford over the Nepean) at half past Four o'clock after a ride of at least 12 miles to and from Nowenong. ---We found Mrs. M. and the rest of our Party all well in Camp, and a good Dinner ready waiting for us, to which we all sat down with very keen appetites. ---After dinner Mrs. M. and myself took a walk along the Road leading from the River to enjoy the cool of the Evening and the tranquil scenes of the Forest around us! ---

Tuesday 20th.---
It rained a good deal last Night, but our Tents being water-tight, we did not get wet ,and slept very comfortably. ---It continued also to rain all this morning, which prevented our moving so soon as we intended. ---Whilst we were at Breakfast we received a visit from Mrs. McArthur, who had just crossed the River from the Cow Pastures on her way back to Parramatta. ---The Rain having ceased we broke up our Camp, and set out on our Journey at Half past 11 o'clock, for St. Andrews, the Seat and Estate of the late Andw. Thompson Esqr. on the Bunbury Curran Creek, where we propose passing a couple of days for the purpose of exploring that particular part of the Country, as well as the lands lying between Bunburry Curran and George's River. Mrs. M. and myself went in the Carriage as far as Mr. Riley's Farm, six miles from the Ford, on the left of the Road from the Nepean to Parramatta; and leaving Mrs. M. in the Carriage at this Place, I mounted my Horse and set out at 1 p.m. to explore the Country for some miles on either side of the South Creek; being accompanied by Capts. Antill & Cleaveland, Ensn. Maclaine, Dr. Redfern, Warlby the Guide and two Dragoons. ---We travelled in a westerly direction first for about Four miles, crossing the South Creek about a mile to the Westward of where we left the Carriage, through the Minto and Cooks Districts; thence about Five miles, nearly in a Northerly direction, through the Bringelly District, till our further progress was arrested by meeting with a deep Creek that runs East and West, and falls into the South Creek at its eastern extremity; we followed this Creek till its junction with the South Creek, which last we crossed a little above its confluence with the other, travelling first in an Easterly direction and afterwards in a South East direction for about Six miles through the Cabramatta District. The Country we first travelled through in Cook's District was very hilly and poor Land, neither good for Tillage nor Pasturage. ---The Land I rode through in the Bringelly District was rather of a superior Quality and not so hilly as the other, but far from being very good Land for Cultivation. After recrossing the South Creek into the Cabramatta District, the Land changes much for the better; and near the confluence of the two creeks, on the East side of the South Creek, it is most excellent for either Tillage or Pasturage for a considerable extent along the Creek ---perhaps for about three miles ---; being generally very Level for a quarter of a mile from the Creek but gradually rising at that distance to gentle Eminences fit for the Buildings & Corn Yards of Settlers; the Plains on the Banks of the Creek being frequently flooded in the rainy Seasons. ---After surveying these Lands, we directed our steps again to Mr. Riley's Farm, where we arrived at 4 p.m. after a ride of about Fifteen miles, finding Mrs. M. waiting for us where we left her. ---We then set out immediately for St. Andrews in the Carriage, the rest of our Party attending us on Horseback; and after a very pleasant easy ride of about 5 miles from Mr. Riley's Farm, arrived at Mr. Thompson's House at St. Andrews about a Quarter before 5 o'clock in the Evening; our Servants and Baggage having arrived there at the same time with ourselves. ---Mrs. M. was much pleased with the beautiful situation of this Farm, the Picturesque scenes arround [sic] it, and the great order and regularity in which the worthy deceased owner of it had left it in, notwithstanding he had had possession of it only for about 8 or nine months previous to his much lamented Death. He had built an excellent Farm House with suitable Offices, Garden, Stock Yards &c. &c. felled a great Quantity of Timber and cleared and enclosed a Field of Ten acres for Corn, a great part of which had already been sown. ---His Horned Cattle consisting of about Ninety Head, and his sheep consisting of about Fourteen Hundred, we found in very high order and most excellent condition as I ever saw any Cattle in, in any Country I have visited. ---We found the Farm-House very clean and in very neat order; the overseer, Joseph Ward and his Wife, being a very decent Couple and seemingly very careful of their late good Master's interests. ---Here we were plentifully supplied with Mutton, Fowls, Butter, Milk, Eggs, and Vegetables; and could not help making the melancholy reflection how much more happy we should have been and felt ourselves here had the kind and valuable deceased owner of this Estate been alive on it now to receive and entertain us under his hospitable Roof! ---This reflection affected Mrs. M. and myself deeply -- for we both had a most sincere and affectionate esteem for our good and most lamented departed friend Andrew Thompson! --- But alas! how vain are our regrets! ---He is lost to the world and to us forever --- and we must console ourselves with the well grounded hope that he is happier now than if he had remained amongst us! ---

We sat down at half past six o'clock to a most excellent Dinner at St. Andrews, and drank to the memory of our lamented deceased Friend Andrew Thompson! ---

Wednesday 21st.---
I set out this morning immediately after Breakfast, accompanied by Mrs. M. and the rest of our Party on Horseback, to explore the Country to the Southward and Westward of Mr. Thompson's Estate, and those Farms granted to several Individuals by the late Usurped Government. ---We first rode through those Farms and for about two miles to the South West of them, and found the Land in general very good for both Tillage and Pasturage, and well watered. ---Having rode about six miles in this direction, Mrs. M. returned Home attended by Mr. Meehan (as her Guide) and Capt. Antill, and one of the Dragoons. ---I prosecuted my ride with the rest of the Party for about three miles in a Westerly direction, from where we fell in with the first Rocks, towards the River Nepean -- and the Land still continued very good during the whole of that extent. --- I met with some fine Herds of Cattle belonging to Mr. Campbell in this last ride, grazing in very fine Pasture, and which I supposed could not be more than about three miles from the River Nepean opposite to Mr. Davidson's Farm and where I had seen the River and that Farm on Monday afternoon. ---From the place I saw Mr. Campbell's Cattle grazing in, we returned back in a North East direction through a very fine Country for about six miles to St. Andrews. ---The principal and indeed only objection to the Land we last rode through for six miles is the great want of Water --there being very few Ponds in all that extent, and the Creeks or Gullies (of which there are a great many) we met with and crossed are all dry at this Season of the Year, with the exception of one or two; so that this last Tract of Country is not so well Calculated for small Settlers. We got back to St. Andrews about 3 o'clock p.m. and finding that Mrs. M. had gone after returning home to see Dr. Townson's Farm and Bunbury Curran Hill immediately in the vicinity of St. Andrews, we all followed her thither, and met her returning home again after having ascended the Hill, accompanied by her Guide Mr. Meehan & a Dragoon. ---We also met Capt. Antill and Mr. Moore, who had come from George's River this morning to see me, on their return home from a walk to Dr. Townson's Farm. ---The accounts given me by Mrs. M. of the beautiful prospect she had from the top of Bunbury Curran Hill, then very near where we met her, induced me to ascend it, which I did on Horseback, and was highly gratified with the noble extensive view I had from the top of it of the surrounding Country. On my return from the Hill, we overtook Mrs. M. on Dr. Townson's Farm, where we stopt [sic] for a few minutes to speak to the Doctor and to look at a very ill chosen situation he has fixed on for the scite [sic] of his new intended House. ---We arrived at our Head Quarters at St. Andrews at 4 o'clock in the afternoon, after being fully six Hours on Horseback, which I fear will knock up Mrs. M. as it is much too long a ride for her in such very hot sultry weather; having rode not less than 15 miles on Horseback, besides walking up the high steep Hill of Bunbury Curran. ---This morning's ride has also deprived us, I am afraid, for some time of the use and Services of our excellent Coach-man and Groom Joseph Big, who unfortunately received a very bad kick from one of the Horses returning home, which has made a deep cut on the Shin Bone of his Left Leg and made a dent in the Bone itself. ---There are hopes however that the Bone is not materially injured and that he will soon recover the use of his Leg again. ---We dined at 5 o'clock, Mr. Moore having staid [sic] to pass this day with us.---

Thursday 22d.---
Wishing to explore very minutely and attentively that Tract of Land lying between the Bunbury Curran Creek and the head of George's River, I got up very early this morning for this purpose; and at half past 5 o'clock set out from St. Andrews on Horseback, accompanied by Mr. Moore, Capt. Cleaveland, Ensn. Maclaine, Dr. Redfern, my Guide Warlby, and one orderly Dragoon. ---We first travelled in a S.E. by East direction for about 4 miles through very fine rich Land well watered, and fit for both Tillage and Pasture, until our further progress was arrested by a very deep extensive stony Creek or Gully, close to the Banks of which the Rocks appeared. From hence we travelled through equally good and rich land in a N. East by North direction, until we fell in with Rocky Land again about 3 miles from the last Rocks; and our Guide being of opinion that we were here very near George's River, we altered our course in the supposed direction of it, travelling for about half a mile due East; when all of a sudden and unexpectedly we arrived on the Bank of the River, the course of which was here about North East and South West; a very pretty little stream of clear well tasted running water, both Banks being very high, steep, and rocky. Leaving our Horses in charge of the Dragoon, we all descended or scrambled down the Bank we arrived on, crossed the River, and ascended to the top of the opposite Bank; from whence we walked for about a quarter of a mile in a Southerly direction through a very barren rocky bad soil -- which appeared to continue equally bad as far as we could see in that direction. --We then returned across the River the same way we came, being perfectly satisfied that this could be no other than the main and principal branch of George's River; which, it would appear, comes from a more Westerly point than has hitherto been supposed, and approaches towards its source within a very few miles of the Nepean River. ---It took us only one hour and a quarter to ride from St. Andrews to George's River -- which perhaps cannot be above Five Miles in a straight Line from St. Andrews. ---- We travelled back from the River in a different and more circuitous direction than that by which we came to it; our course homewards being nearly N. West for 3 miles, till we arrived on the Right Bank of the Bunbury Curran Creek through very fine rich Land and open Forest, well watered and fit for agriculture and grazing. ---We rode along the Creek for about a mile, then crossed it a little below Dr. Townson's Farm, and returned home from the Left Bank of it in a Westerly direction. ---We arrived at St. Andrews at 9 o'clock, very hungry for our Breakfasts, but highly gratified with our morning's ride; having rode between 14 and 15 miles through the best and finest Country I have yet seen in the Colony, and by far the most eligible centrical and fittest in every point of view for small Settlers to have allotments of Land assigned them in. ---I intend forming this Tract of Country into a new and separate District for the accommodation of small Settlers, and to name it "Airds" in honor of my dear good Elizabeth's Family Estate! ---

Having Breakfasted and sent off our Servants and Baggage, we took leave of St. Andrews for this time, and set out in the Carriage at Noon for Parramatta, where we arrived after a very pleasant ride of 22 miles at 3 o'clock in the Afternoon; Joseph, tho' suffering great pain having drove us with his usual Skill and dexterity safe home to our House at Parramatta. ---Mr. Moore took his leave of us at St. Andrews to return home; and our excellent Guide Warlby parted with us on the Road near his own Farm at Prospect.---

Tuesday 27th.
Mrs. M. and myself being both a little indisposed after our late fatigues, and our Servants and Horses requiring some rest, we remained quietly at home since our return from St. Andrews on the 22d Instant to get well enough against our next excursion.

This forenoon we sent off our Servants, Tents, and other Baggage, together with a small Boat belonging to our Nephew Ensn. Maclaine, to meet us on Doctor Jamieson's Farm, in the Evan District, on the Right Bank of the Nepean; intending to follow them thither ourselves early tomorrow morning in the Carriage by a more circuitous route, in order to see all the intermediate Farms in that District situated on the Banks of the South Creek, previous to our proceeding to explore the new or Western River lately discovered by Mr. Evans the Depy. Surveyor in that part of the Country; for which last purpose I have sent Mr. Maclaine's Boat on this day to the Nepean River.---

Wednesday 28th.
At 1/2 past 6 a.m. Mrs. M. and myself set out in the Carriage from Parramatta, accompanied by the Gentlemen of our own Party and Mr. Gregory Blaxland, to prosecute my Tour of Inspection in the interior parts of the Colony. --We passed close to Prospect Hill, and by the Devils Back to Mr. Bayly's Farm near the South Creek; we halted here a little while and admired very much the situation of Mr. Bayly's Farm, and the neatness of his Barn and Stock-Yards; thence passed on across the South Creek to a small Farm belonging to Mr. Gregory Blaxland, at whose Farm Hut we halted to Breakfast. ---At 1/2 past 10 a.m. I set out on Horseback along with Mr. G. Blaxland to see his own and Mr. Badgery's Farms in the Bringelly District; leaving Mrs.M. and the rest of the Party at Mr. Blaxland's Hut where we had Breakfasted.

Called first at Badgery's Farm close on the left Bank of the South Creek, where I was much pleased to find a good Farm House built, a good Garden, and a considerable quantity of ground cleared. ---Thence we proceeded to Mr. Blaxland's own Farms, about 5 or six miles distant from the South Creek in a westerly direction. ---This is entirely as yet a grazing Farm, with only a miserable Hut for the Stock keepers, and Stock-Yards for the Cattle. ---The Land in some parts is tolerably good, and pretty well watered, but is better adapted to grazing than Tillage. We rode back, a different way to what we came, to Mr. G. Blaxland's Farm on the South Creek, through his second large Farm, and a Farm belonging to Doctor Wentworth in the Bringelly District; the Country through this last ride was pretty to look [at] but the Soil generally bad; at 1 p.m. arrived at Mr. Blaxland's Hut, where we rejoined our Friends again.---

At a quarter past 1 p.m. I set out with Mrs. M. in the Carriage, accompanied by the gentlemen of our Family and Mr. G. Blaxland; and recrossing the South Creek, we travelled along the Right Bank of it to Mr. Marsden's Farm, thence crossed the Creek again to Mrs. O'Connell's Farm of Frogmore ---thence to Mrs. King's Farm on the Right Bank of the South Creek; where we halted for a short while to look at her fine numerous Herds of Horned Cattle, of which she has upwards of 700 Head of all descriptions. ---Her agent Mr. Hassall was here for the purpose of strewing them to us, and we found them in very high condition.---

After taking a little refreshment at Mrs. King's Farm we pursued our journey to the Place intended for our Embarkation on the River Nepean; and arrived at Doctor Jamison's Farm, situated on the Right Bank of that River, at half past 4 o'clock in the afternoon; finding all our Servants & Baggage and Boat arrived some time before us. with our Tents ready Pitched for our reception. ---This day's Journey from Parramatta by the circuitous route we travelled, cannot be less than 35 miles. ---At 5 p.m. we had Ensign Maclaine's Boat launched into the River Nepean, naming her the Discovery. ---Here the Nepean is near a mile broad and has a great depth of water for some miles below as well as above Doctor Jamison's Farm; opposite to which is a very fine rich Tract of Country called Eemoo Island. Mr. Geo. Wm. Evans the Actg. Depy. Surveyor joined our Party at Mrs. King's Farm, and he and Mr. Hassall accompanied us to our Encampment; the latter staying to dine with us, and returning home in the Evening to Mrs. King's Farm. ---We went early to bed, being all a little tired after our long hot Journey.

Thursday 29th. Novr. 1811. [sic] ---
Having always intended to explore the new or Western River sometime since discovered by Mr. Evans Actg. Depy. Surveyor; Mrs. M. and myself in Mr. Maclaines Boat, accompanied by Capt. Antill, Dr. Redfern, Mr. Evans, & Ensn. Maclaine; and Capt. Cleaveland, Mr. Meehan and Mr. G. Blaxland in another Small Boat we found on Dr. Jamison's Farm, with a sufficient number of Rowers and some refreshments; set out from our Encampment this morning at 6 o'clock on our Water Excursion up the Nepean River. ---We rowed up leisurely so as to have the more time to enjoy the fine and beautiful Scenery of this large River, the Banks of which are very lofty and clothed with wood to the very top. ---After a pleasant row of four hours, we reached the confluence of the New River and Nepean; the latter dwindling here into a petty stream, and [the] other pouring an immense body of water into a circular Bason, [sic] which connects with the Nepean at this Spot, and then forms one large River. The New River at its confluence with the Nepean runs North West and South East, and a little above the Bason [sic] is about 25 yards broad, the Channel being perfectly clear of Rocks and of considerable depth for a few miles farther up. The Distance from Dr. Jamison's Farm to the junction of the New River with the Nepean cannot be less than Twelve miles from the time we took to row it. ---After we had proceeded about half a mile up the River, we halted at a beautiful romantic spot on the Right Bank of it, forming a sort of natural Terrace at the foot of a prodigious high cliff, in order to take our Breakfast and view the grand surrounding scenery. ---We were all well prepared for making a hearty meal, and which everyone enjoyed very much after so long a voyage, and in so beautiful a sequestered spot.

The Banks of the River are here very lofty and almost perpendicular, not being less than 400 Feet in height and wooded to their very summits. ---They are beautifully grand and Picturesque to look at, but extremely difficult to pass or travel through on foot from their great steepness and ruggedness.

One of the natives born near this part of the Country, and who made one of our Party on this day's Excursion, tells us that the real and proper native name of this newly discovered River that we are now exploring is the Warragombie, by which name I have directed it to be called in future. ---The immense high Hill directly opposite to the Terrace we Breakfasted on, is called Cheenbar, and is well known to the Natives. ---After we had Breakfasted we prosecuted our Excursion up the River in our Boats, intending to go as far as our time would permit so as to return the same Day to our Encampment; but before we had proceeded three miles above where we had Breakfasted, our further progress was arrested by the first Fall or Cataract, and which precluded the possibility of proceeding farther on without carrying the Boats over this Fall, which would here prove very laborious. ---We therefore resolved on abandoning every idea of pursuing our researches farther; and contenting ourselves with what we had already seen of this fine noble River, to return to our Encampment.

Before we reached the first Fall the River began gradually to contract its Bed, the depth of water was less, and large Rocks were interspersed in the Channel, but still quite sufficient Depth of Water for our Boats up to the Fall. ---Beyond the first fall we could perceive several others at great distances, which was an additional reason for our not attempting to pass the first fall. ---The Banks on both sides of the River, as far as we went, and as far as we could see beyond the first Fall, continue immensely high and lofty and covered with fine wood to their summits -- being in many Places above 400 feet high. ---The River Warragombie runs nearly South West and North East at the first Fall. ---We arrived there at 2 o'clock, and after resting our Rowers for about half an Hour, we set out on our return Home, arriving at our Encampment at 1/2 past 7 o'clock in the evening, highly pleased and gratified with our Day's Excursion to the Warragombie; which we had explored two miles higher up than Mr. Evans or any other Person had ever before attempted to do. ---This Day's Journey by water was at least Thirty Miles backwards and forwards. ---We dined immediately on our arrival in Camp, and went early to Bed.

Friday 30th. Novr.---
After Breakfast, at 1/2 past 10 o'clock this morning, we broke up our Camp at Dr. Jamison's Farm, and set out to prosecute our Tour along the Farms situated further down the Rivers Nepean and Hawkesbury ---our Servants & Baggage setting out at the same time by a more direct Route to our next resting Place or Ground of Encampment on the banks of the Hawkesbury; and Ensn. Maclaine's Boat being sent back on a waggon to Parramatta. ---Our pleasant facetious travelling companion Mr. Gregory Blaxland took his leave of us this morning and returned home to attend his own concerns.---

After leaving Doctor Jamison's Farm we passed through Capt. Woodriffe's and Mr. Chapman's, both on the Right Bank of the Nepean and which appeared a very fine rich Soil fit both for Tillage and Pasturage. ---Thence we passed through a long extensive chain of Farms along the Nepean belonging to Appledore, Westmore, Collett, Stanyard, Pickering, Field, Stephen Smith, Jones, Cheshire, Harris, Guy, Wm. Cheshire, Landrine, Stockfish, Oldwright, Ryan, Griffith, Kennedy &c. &c. being the front line of Farms on this River.

These are all good Farms, good soil, and well cultivated, but they are liable to be flooded in general when this River overflows its Banks, and consequently the Houses of the Settlers are very mean and paltry.

There was a tolerable good Road for the Carriage through the whole of these Farms. ---On arriving at Donald Kennedy's Farm, which is beautifully situated on a rising ground near the River, I quitted the carriage and mounted my Horse to view the back line of Farms, and explore the Ground intended to be laid out shortly for a Township and place of security and retreat for the Settlers inhabiting this part of the Country; leaving Mrs. M. at Kennedy's Farm till my return. ---I was accompanied by the Surveyors and the rest of the Party, and we rode over the High Grounds intended for the Township, and which appears a most eligible situation for one and not more than 3 miles from the River. We returned by the back line of Farms to Kennedy's, where we rejoined Mrs. M. and thence pursued our Journey along the remaining parts of the Nepean District in the Carriage. On arriving at Mr. Thompson's Farm of Agnes Bank, we were joined by Mr. Wm. Cox the Magistrate of these Districts. ---From Agnes Bank we proceeded to view the Confluence of the Nepean and Grosse Rivers, which is within about two miles of that Farm. ---We drove in the Carriage close to the spot of the junction of the two Rivers, which we went to view on foot, and were highly gratified with the sight. ---From the confluence of these two Rivers, the noble River Hawkesbury commences; but here it is only an inconsiderable stream, and not navigable even for small Boats for three or four miles farther down. ---From the confluence of the Nepean and Grosse Rivers we proceeded again in the Carriage along the front line of Farms on the Hawkesbury, till we arrived at the Yellow-Mundie-Lagoon, a noble lake of fine fresh water, at the North End of which we halted and Encamped for the Night; finding all our Servants and Baggage just arrived there only a few minutes before us. ---Here Mr. Cox took his leave of us to go home to his own House as did Mr. Evans; promising to be with us again early in the morning.

Whilst our Tents were Pitching and our Dinner getting ready, Mrs. M. and myself took a short ride on Horseback along the Banks of this beautiful Lagoon, returning again to our Tents in about an Hour; having first arrived at our ground of Encampment at 1/2 past 6 o'clock, after a Journey of about 25 miles, besides my extra ride to the Township. ---We did not dine till 2 past 8 o'clock -- and went soon afterwards to Bed.

Saturday 1st. Decr. 1811.[sic] ---
---We Breakfasted at 9 o'clock this morning, having been joined previous thereto by Mr. Cox, Mr. & Mrs. Evans, Mr. Forest and some other Visitors. ---Having sent off our Servants & Baggage and Carriage by the direct Road to the Government Cottage at the Green Hills on the Right Bank of the Hawkesbury, we mounted our Horses to make an Excursion to Richmond Hill, the Kurry Jung Brush, and Richmond Terrace on the Left Bank of the Hawkesbury; setting out from the Yellow-Mundie Lagoon at 10 o'clock, accompanied by Mrs. Macquarie, the Gentlemen of our own Family, Mr. Cox & Mr. Evans, we crossed the Hawkesbury about a mile from our last Encampment, in a Boat to Richmond Hill, our Horses crossing the River by a bad Ford about half a mile higher up, and which we mounted again on landing at Richmond Hill. ---We rode up the Hill to call on Mrs. Bell (the Wife of Lieut. Bell of the 102d Regt.) who resides on her Farm on the summit of this beautiful Hill, from which there is a very fine commanding Prospect of the River Hawkesbury and adjacent Country. ---We found Mrs. Bell and her Family at Home, and after sitting with them for about an hour, we again mounted our Horses to prosecute our Excursion, directing our course for the Kurry Jung Hill.

Soon after leaving Richmond Hill I discovered that my favorite horse Cato, which I had hitherto rode from the commencement of my Tour, was quite lame occasioned by a wrench he had got in crossing the River this morning at the deep bad Ford already alluded to. ---In consequence of this accident I was obliged to send him back to go leisurely to the Green Hills, and to mount one of the Dragoon Horses during the rest of this day's Excursion. ---We rode through a fine open Forest and Hilly Country for about 5 miles to the Foot of the Curry [sic] Jung Hill, which is very long and steep to ascend, arriving on the summit of it at 12 o'clock, and from whence we had a very grand noble Prospect of the low grounds on both Banks of the River Hawkesbury as far as the Green Hills. ---Having feasted our Eyes with this fine prospect on the one hand, and with that of the Blue Mountains ( here quite close to us ) on the other, we began to descend the Hill on the opposite side to that we ascended it, and the descent was so very steep that we had great difficulty to sit our Horses. ---We arrived, however, safe and without meeting with any accident at the bottom of the Hill, which from the summit to the foot cannot be less than a mile long, excessively steep, and covered with thick Brush-wood; but through which Mr. Evans had had a small Passage or Road made some little time before, with the view to mark out the best Path to descend the Hill. ---The Brush wood that covers the sides of this Hill is full of a small sort of Leech, which fasten on Horses Feet and annoy & fret them very much. ---Mrs. M. had two or three of them on her ankles at one time, and all our Horses were attacked by them, but they were soon shook off. ---We found plenty of Wild Raspberries on the sides of this Hill, but they were without any flavour and not worth Eating.

On leaving the Kurry Jung Hill (named by the late Mr. Thompson "Mount Maurice" out of compliment to Lt. Col. O'Connell), we pursued our way through that District of Country called the Kurry-Jung-Brush, which is a fine range of Hill & Dale alternately, and admirably well calculated for Pasturage, being well watered and abounding in good grass and good shelter for both Black Cattle & Sheep. Several Farms having been located in this fine tract of Country to different Individuals in the time of the Usurped Government, I desired Mr. Meehan the Acting Surveyor to point them out to me as we rode along.

About 2 p.m. we quitted the Kurry-Jung Brush and arrived on what is called Richmond Terrace, running Parallel with the Hawkesbury for about 3 miles and commanding a very rich and beautiful prospect of the low grounds on each side of the River, now looking very rich, being covered with luxuriant Crops of Wheat ready for cutting down to repay the Industrious Husbandman for his Toil and Labour. ---From the Terrace we gradually descended into the Plains and Back Line of Farms on the left Bank of the Hawkesbury, and rode through beautiful extensive Fields of Wheat for Six or Seven miles after descending from the Terrace till our arrival on that part of the Bank of the River opposite to the Green Hills. Here we dismounted; and crossed the River ourselves in the late Mr. Thompson's Barge, which was here waiting for us, whilst our Horses swam across the River, which is here about a quarter of a mile broad. At halfpast 5 o'clock we arrived at the Ferry on the Left Bank of the River and at 6 o'clock landed in the Government Garden on the Green Hills and took possession of the Government House -- or, more properly speaking, -- Government Cottage; most beautifully situated on the summit of a very fine Bank or Terrace rising about Fifty feet above the level of the River; of which, and the adjacent Country, there is a very fine view from this sweet delightful spot. ---This day's ride was a very long and fatiguing one for us all, but particularly so for my poor dear Elizabeth; who, however, bore it uncommonly well, notwithstanding she was at least Seven Hours on Horseback, and rode not less than Thirty Miles during this Day's Excursion since we Breakfasted at Yellow-Mundie-Lagoon.---

Mrs. M. and myself were quite delighted with the beauty of this part of the Country; its great fertility, and its Picturesque appearance; and especially with the well-chosen and remarkable fine scite [sic] and situation of the Government Cottage and Garden on the Green Hills. ---We dined soon after our arrival and after Dinner our Friend & Family physician Doctor Redfern took his departure for Sydney.---

Sunday 2d. Decr. 1811. [sic] ---
Mrs. M. and myself with the Gentlemen of our Family, attended Divine Service this forenoon at the temporary Church at the Green Hills, where the Revd. Mr. Robert Cartwright, the Chaplain of this District, gave us a most excellent Discourse and read Prayers extremely well indeed. ---After church Mrs. Macquarie and myself attended by Capt. Antill, rode in the Carriage to the new Burying Ground, distant about a mile from Government House, to view the Tomb where the remains of our late worthy and highly esteemed good friend Mr. Andw. Thompson, late Chief Magistrate of this District, are deposited, and whose loss we both very sincerely lament and deplore, and from whose superior local knowledge and good sound sense and judicious advice, I once fondly flattered myself I should derive great benefit and advantage during my present Tour of Inspection through this Colony. ---The Spot Mr. Thompson's remains are buried in is most beautiful and happily selected by his Executor Captain Antill; and the Situation of this new Burying Ground altogether is one of the most beautiful and convenient that can well be imagined. ---Having remained there for near Half an Hour, we took our leave of our departed Friend's Tomb (--which we intend to improve and render more elegant & conspicuous as a tribute of regard and friendship for his memory --) and proceeded in the Carriage to see two of his Farms called West Hill (or Red House Farm) and Killarney, both very good ones, and both within the convenient distance of two miles of the town on the Green Hills. The Road to these Farms is very good, and we had a very pleasant Drive to and from them in the Carriage. Mr. Cox and Doctor Mileham dined with us today.

Monday 3d. Decr.---
Immediately after Breakfast this morning I set out for the Richmond District, accompanied by the two Surveyors, Mr. Cox the Magistrate, the Revd. Mr. Cartwright, and the Gentlemen of my own Staff, in order to examine and survey the proper Grounds and Scite [sic] for a Town and Township in that District. We rode over the greater part of the Common formerly marked out in the time of Govr. King for the Richmond District, and afterwards over that part of it I deemed most eligible and convenient for erecting a Town and Township on, and which we at length fixed on at the extremity of the Common, near Pugh's Lagoon; intending to have the Church, School-House and Burying Ground on a very beautiful elevated Bank immediately above this fine bason [sic] of Fresh Water, and within about 200 yards of it. ---After fixing on the situation of this Township I proceeded to view the different Farms of the Richmond District, first going along the Back-line as far as Capt. Forest's, and returning Home to the Green Hills by the Center and Front Line of Farms; the Soil of which in general is extremely good, and yield at this present time very fine Crops, but the Houses and Habitations of the Settlers are miserably bad, and the front and center lines of Farms are liable to be flooded on any innundation of the Hawkesbury River. ---This day's Ride was a very hot, long, and fatiguing one; having been Nine Hours on Horseback. ---I set out from the Government House at 8 o'clock in the morning and did not return Home till 5 o'clock in the afternoon, having rode about 35 miles. ---Mrs. M. remained at Home this day, being a good deal fatigued after her long ride on Saturday.---

The Revd. Mr. Cartwright & his wife, Mr. Cox, and Dr. Mileham dined with us this day.

Tuesday 4th. Decr.---
Wishing to explore the Hawkesbury River, down as far as Portland Head, and at the same time view the Front Farms on both Banks that far, I set out this morning between 5 and 6 o'clock, accompanied by Mrs. Macquarie, Mrs. Cartwright, Mr. Cartwright, Mr. Cox, Mr. Hassall, and the Gentlemen of our Family, in the late Mr. Thompson's Barge and another smaller Boat, on our Excursion to Portland Head. ---We stopt [sic] at Govr. Bligh's Farm of Blighton, about six miles below the Green Hills on the Right Bank of the River, a very beautiful situation; and after walking about the grounds there for half an hour we proceeded on our Voyage down the River. ---At 8 o'clock we stopped at the New School-House recently erected by Subscription, on the left Bank of the River, a little below Caddye-Creek, but on the opposite side, where we had determined to Breakfast, which was accordingly prepared with all convenient haste within the New School-House, which is prettily situated on the Bank of the River. ---Here Doctor Arndell came to pay us a visit from his Farm on Caddye Creek on the opposite side of the River, and Breakfasted with us. ---After Breakfast we embarked again and prosecuted our voyage down the River, the Banks of which begin here to be very high and Rocky in most places. ---The Farms on both Banks, especially those on the Left Bank, are rich and well cultivated, and make a pretty appearance from the water, being generally interspersed with extensive Orchards of Peaches and other Fruits. ---We reached Portland Head, which is about twenty miles by the windings of the River from the Green Hills, about 12 o'clock; and there being nothing of consequence to be seen lower down the River at this time, we retraced our steps back the same way we came till we arrived at Caddye Creek, where we quitted our Boat and landed at Dr. Arndell's Farm, where we had directed our Carriage & Horses to meet us, and where we found them accordingly waiting for us; the Boats proceeding Home with our Servants & Baggage.

We arrived at Dr. Arndell's House about 2 o'clock, and having rested ourselves for about half an hour there, I set out on Horseback along with the Surveyors, Mr. Cox & Mr. Cartwright to survey and examine the Ground most eligible for a Town & Township in the Nelson District on the Common belonging to that District; Mrs. Macquarie proceeding home in the Carriage. ---Having rode over the Common in various directions, we at length determined upon the part of it most eligible and convenient for a Township, immediately in rear of the Back Line of Farms, and entirely out of the reach of the inundation of the River. ---We then rode home and arrived at the Government Cottage at 1/2 past 6 o'clock in the Evening. ---Mrs. M. had got Home long before us, and had Dinner ready prepared for us, which we enjoyed very much after our long water Excursion in the morning and fatiguing afternoon's ride. ---

Wednesday 5th. Decr.---
I accompanied Mrs. M. in the Carriage this morning to pay Visits, immediately after Breakfast, to Mrs. Cox, Mrs. Pitt, Mrs. Evans & Mrs. Forrest, all residing in different Parts of the Richmond District. ---On our return Home we stopt [sic] for a short time to shew Mrs. M. the Ground intended to be marked out for a Town & Township in the Richmond District close to Pugh's Lagoon, which she admired very much. ---After my return Home I went to examine and view the inside of the Church, School-House and the Government Granaries and Provision Stores --- all which I found in good order and repair; the Grain & Provisions being in excellent good condition. ---Mr. Simeon Lord, and Mr. Moore from Sydney, and Dr. Arndell and his Daughters dined with us this day.---

Thursday 6th. Decr.---
At 9 o'clock this morning, as soon as we had Breakfasted, I set out, attended by the Surveyors, Mr. Cox, Mr. Fitzgerald, and the Gentlemen of my staff (--leaving Mrs. M. at home) to visit the several Farms on the opposite side of the River, and to examine and survey the proper ground for a Town and Township for the Farms on the Left or North Bank of the River Hawkesbury liable to be flooded by the inundations.---

Having crossed the Ferry at the Green Hills to the North side of the River, we proceeded by the Front & Center line of Farms alternately as far down the River as Kershaw's Farm, about 7 miles from the Green Hills; and thence returning by the Back Line of Farms passed over the Common in rear of them, where we looked for an eligible Spot for the intended Town & Township for the accommodation of the Settlers of the Phillip District and others inhabiting the Northern Bank of the River Hawkesbury, and after carefully surveying the different Parts of the Common we fixed on a very safe and convenient situation for the Town and Township in this part of the Country; which done we returned home and arrived at Government Cottage at 1/2 past 2 o'clock. ---Took some refreshment and walked out to survey the Grounds belonging to the Crown in and near the present village on the Green Hills, and also the adjoining Public Common marked out for this part of the Country in the time of Governor King; a convenient part of which it is now my intention to appropriate for a large Town and Township for the accommodation of the Settlers inhabiting the South side of the River Hawkesbury, whose Farms are liable to be flooded on any inundation of the River, and to connect the present Village on the Green Hills with the intended new Town and Township. ---After viewing the ground and maturely considering the importance of the measure, the scite [sic] and situation of the new Town was at length fixed finally upon ---the exact scite [sic] of the new Church and Great Square being particularly marked out, as well as the extent and situation of the new Burying Ground; the Acting Surveyor, Mr. Meehan, receiving orders to measure and make out a Plan of the whole.---

A large Party of Friends dined with us today, consisting in all of 21 Persons, including our own Family. ---After Dinner I christened the new Townships, drinking a Bumper to the success of each. ---I gave the name of Windsor to the Town intended to be erected in the District of the Green Hills, in continuation of the present Village, from the similarity of this situation to that of the same name in England; the Township in the Richmond District I have named Richmond, from its beautiful situation, and as corresponding with that of its District; the Township for the Evan or Nepean District I have named Castlereagh in honor of Lord Viscount Castlereagh; the Township of the Nelson District I have named Pitt-Town in honor of the immortal memory of the late great William Pitt, the Minister who originally planned this Colony; and the Township for the Phillip District; on the North or left Bank of the Hawkesbury, I have named Wilberforce -- in honor of and out of respect to the good and virtuous Wm. Wilberforce Esqr. M.P. -- a true Patriot and the real Friend of Mankind.

Having sufficiently celebrated this auspicious Day of christening the five Towns and Townships, intended to be erected and established for the security and accommodation of the Settlers and others inhabiting the Cultivated Country, on the Banks of the Rivers Hawkesbury and Nepean; I recommended to the Gentlemen present to exert their influence with the Settlers in stimulating them to lose no time in removing their Habitations, Flocks & Herds to these Places of safety and security, and thereby fulfil my intentions and plans in establishing them.---

As soon as we had broke up from Table, Captain Antill, accompanied by Messrs. Lord and Moore, who had dined with us, set out by water for Scotland Island, a part of the Estate of the late Mr. Thompson, in order to take an account of his Property there, the rest of our Party returning to their respective Homes, highly gratified with their entertainment.---

Friday 7th Decr.---
I received and answered a great number of Petitions and Memorials from Settlers and others in the course of this morning. ---I also received and answered a congratulatory address from the Principal Settlers & Inhabitants of the Hawkesbury and Nepean Districts, presented by Doctor Arndell, the oldest Settler in this Country (--having arrived in the Colony with Govr. Phillip in 1788--) complimenting me on my administration, and first appearance in this part of the Colony; to which I made a suitable reply.---

In the afternoon I went to explore again the scite [sic] of the intended new Town of Windsor, accompanied by the two Surveyors, to whom I communicated my plans and final orders respecting the scite [sic] of the Church, Great Square in the new Town, and Small Square and Streets intended to be formed in the present Village, which is henceforth to form part of the Town of Windsor, and to be designated so accordingly. ---I laid out several new Streets and gave directions for enlarging and improving the old ones, as well as respecting the size and descriptions of all future Houses that are permitted to be built in the Town of Windsor.---

Mr. Cox, Dr. Mileham, and Mr. Evans dined with us again today; my labours at Windsor being now ended.---

Saturday 8th. Decr.---
At 9 o'clock this morning immediately after Breakfast, Mrs. M. and myself set out in the Carriage from Windsor for Parramatta, accompanied by the Gentlemen of our Family and Mr. Hassall. ---We halted for about a quarter of an Hour at Lt.Col. O'Connell's Farm of Riverston (granted to him by me on his marriage) distant about six miles from Windsor on the High Road to Parramatta; examined his Dairy and Stock-yards, and then pursued our journey. ---On our arriving near the Districts of the Seven Hills and Toongabbee, I quitted the Carriage and mounted my Horse in order to take a view of the Farms in those two Districts; leaving Mrs. M. to pursue her journey in the Carriage to Parramatta, attended by the Orderly Dragoon Serjeant; our Servants and Baggage having been sent off thither early this morning from Windsor. ---Mr. Hassall attended me as Guide to lead me through the numerous Farms in these two Districts, all of which I either saw at a short distance or actually visited in the course of this day's Journey. ---The soil of those Farms is in general, very bad, and exhausted by the Settlers constantly keeping the same Fields in Tillage and giving them no artificial manure. The Houses or rather Huts of the Settlers are very bad, mean, and inconveniently constructed; themselves and their Families badly clothed, and apparently very ill and poorly fed. ---I spoke to and admonished many of them to pay more attention in future to their own Personal cleanliness and comfort and to build themselves better Houses to live in; promising to such as followed this good advice every reasonable assistance and encouragement from Government. ---Having seen all the Farms in the Seven Hills and Toongabbee Districts, I pursued my Journey home to Parramatta, where I arrived at 1/2 past 4 o'clock; finding Mrs. Macquarie at Government House before me.---

Sunday 9th. Decr.---
Mrs. M. and myself and the Gentlemen of our Family, attended Divine Service at Parramatta church this day, and had a very good Discourse from the Revd. Mr. Marsden the Principal Chaplain of the Colony. ---In the afternoon Lieut. Col. & Mrs. O'Connell, and Secry. Campbell paid us a visit from Sydney, and dined and spent the Day with us at Parramatta.---

Monday 10th. Decr.---
Lt. Col. & Mrs. O'Connell and Secry. Campbell returned to Sydney this morning after Breakfast, and Mrs: M. and myself in the Carriage, accompanied by Mr. Meehan the Surveyor on Horseback, proceeded to view and visit the Farms in the District of Prospect Hill.---

On reaching Prospect Hill, I quitted the Carriage and mounted my Horse to inspect the several Farms attended by the Surveyor; whilst Mrs. M. proceeded in the Carriage to the House of Warbie our late Guide, and there wait my joining her. ---The Soil of all the Farms in this District is of an excellent quality, and yield good Crops of Wheat and Maize alternately. ---The Houses of the Settlers are of a better description, and they appear to live more comfortably and are more decently clothed than those of the Seven Hills and Toongabbee. ---I joined Mrs. M. at Warbie's House at 2 o'clock after riding through all the Farms in the Prospect District. ---Warbie shewed us his wife and a numerous Family of Children, and I promised him an additional Grant of Land. ---

We returned again to Parramatta at 4 o'clock.---

Tuesday 11th. Decr.---
I went in the Carriage with Mrs. M. accompanied by Mr. Meehan the surveyor, this morning after Breakfast to see and inspect the Government Agricultural Farm of Castlehill, where the Government Crops of Wheat are now ripe and cutting down to be gathered in. ---Having inspected the whole of this Farm and its capablities for Tillage and Pasturage, I proceeded to visit those remaining Farms in Baulkham-Hills and Toongabbie Districts, which I had not seen in my first Excursion to these Districts at the commencement of my Tour of Inspection in November. ---These Farms are in general poor ones, and not productive, but I was highly gratified with the appearance of two of them -- namely those belonging to Best and Pye, two very industrious respectable Settlers, who have their Farms well cultivated and in most excellent order, -- with good offices, and comfortable decent Dwelling Houses. ---We returned home from this day's Excursion at 4 o'clock.---

Wednesday 12th. Decr.---
At 9 o'clock this morning, as soon as we had Breakfasted, I set out to inspect and visit the Farms in the District of Concord, lying along the Southern Side of the Arm of the Sea or River between Parramatta and Sydney. Mrs. M. accompanied me in the Carriage as far as Powell's Farm at the Half-Way House, where she remained in the Carriage; whilst I mounted my Horse, and attended by Mr. Meehan the Surveyor, and Capt. Cleaveland, proceeded to inspect and visit the several farms in this small District. ---These Farms are of small extent and very poor Soil, the Settlers are very poor, and live in mean dirty small Habitations. ---I admonished and advised them to pay more attention to their own concerns, and to become more industrious.---

I rejoined Mrs. M. at the Half-Way-House between 1 and 2 o'clock, and returned with her in the Carriage to Parramatta, where we arrived at half past 2 o'clock. ---I then proceeded on Horseback, attended by Mr. Meehan, to inspect the Town and Streets of the Town of Parramatta, and planned several new streets, alterations, and improvements for the ornament of the Town and the accommodation of its Inhabitants.

Thursday 13th. Decr. 1810.---
The Farms lying on the shores of Botany Bay, on Cook's River and in the small District of Petersham, between Sydney and Botany Bay, being the only ones in the Colony now remaining unexplored in my present Tour of Inspection, I set out this morning at 7 o'clock from Parramatta with Mrs. Macquarie in the Carriage, and accompanied by the Gentlemen of our Family and the Surveyor, to visit those Farms on my return home to Sydney. ---We struck off at Powell's Half-Way-House through the Woods, and after a very pleasant Drive through a thick Forest, arrived at Capt. Townson's Farm House on Botany Bay, at half past 9 o'clock. We found the Captain at home in his very pretty neat clean little Cottage, where he received us with hospitality and in a Gentlemanlike manner; and whilst our Breakfast (which we had carried along with us) was getting ready, he walked with us to shew us his Garden, and all the other little improvements of his Farm. ---His Garden we found in excellent order, and producing the largest and best Strawberries I have yet seen or eat [sic] in this Colony. ---After Breakfast we embarked on the Water in Capt. Townson's Boat, in order to see his own and his Brother Doctor Townson's Farm, which join each other at this Place. ---The Doctor's Farm we found in miserable bad order, with only one Solitary Hut on it, occupied by two of his indented Servants, a man and his wife -- the latter being very sickly and to all appearance half starved; there were no appearance whatever of any improvements on this Farm, which is as yet in a state of nature.

Having viewed these Farms, we proceeded for five or six miles down Botany Bay until we opened the Heads and Entrance of it, and then returned to Capt. Townson's Cottage after a two hours very pleasant Water Excursion. ---At 1 p.m. we set out again from Capt. Townson's for Mrs. Laycock's Farm near Cook's River, and arrived there at half past 2 o'clock. ---We found Mrs. Laycock and her two Daughters at home, in a very neat comfortable well built Farm House and well furnished; the good old Lady's Farm being also in a forward state of improvement in other respects. ---After resting for half an hour at Mrs. Laycock's, we pursued our Journey on to Canterbury; thus crossing Cook's River twice over a very slender bad Bridge within two miles of Mrs. Laycock's Farm, and is rather dangerous for a Carriage. ---At 4 p.m. we arrived at Canterbury, a Farm belonging to Mr. Robt. Campbell Senr. Mercht. at Sydney. ---It is an extensive Farm, and a good deal of the wood has been cleared,;but the Soil is bad, and neither good for Tillage or Pasturage.

I quitted the Carriage and mounted my Horse at Canterbury in order to inspect the few remaining small Farms between this and Sydney; Mrs. Macquarie proceeding in the Carriage by the Main Road, to meet and wait for me at Grose Farm. ---I called at Mr. Moore's, Mr. Blaxcell's, Mr. Blaxland's, Capt. Rowley's and several other smaller Farms in the District of Petersham, all of which are poor and of little value; the Farm Houses, however, are tolerably good; and considerable pains have been taken to clear, enclose and improve the Lands.---At half past 5 p.m. I joined Mrs. Macquarie, whom I found in the Carriage near Grose Farm, and there getting in to the Carriage again, we drove in to Sydney, arriving at the Government House at six o'clock in the Evening, having been absent on this very pleasant Tour of Inspection 5 weeks & 2 Days.


Appendix or Supplement to First Tour of
Inspection through the Colony: ---

Tuesday 8th. Jany. 1811.---
Set out this afternoon at 4 p.m. from Sydney with Mrs. Macquarie in the Carriage and accompanied by the Gentlemen of our Family, and arrive at Parramatta at a quarter past 5 o'clock to Dinner. ---

Wednesday 9th. Jany.---
Set out from Parramatta at a quarter past 6 o'clock this morning, and arrive at Government Cottage at Windsor at a quarter past 9 o'clock to Breakfast.---

Thursday 10th. Jany.---
Immediately after Breakfast this morning, about 9 o'clock. Mrs. M. and myself in the Carriage, attended by the Gentlemen of our Family, the Surveyor, the Revd. Mr. Cartwright, Mr. Cox, and several other Gentlemen set out from Windsor to view the intended Scite [sic] for the Township of Castlereagh -- proceeding thither the near way through the Woods by the South Creek. On arriving on the Heights along which the Township is intended to be erected, we found a number of the Inhabitants & Settlers of the Nepean River District waiting for us. We all proceeded on Horse-back to view the Grounds, which are beautifully situated, fronting and overlooking the River Nepean, and having a full view of the lofty Blue Mountains to the westward of that River. The Great Square in the Center of the Township having been marked out, the Name of it -- "Castlereagh" painted on a Board ! was nailed to a high strong Post and erected in the Center of the Square, the more clearly to mark out the Situatation [sic] of the Town: The Burying Ground also, about a quarter of a mile in rear of the Square and the principal Streets, were marked out by Strong Posts by the Surveyor. ---Having thus marked out the Township of Castlereagh, we next proceeded to that of Richmond; and having again minutely examined the Ground there, the Scite [sic] of the Church, School-House & Burying Ground were marked out by Strong Posts put in the Ground by the Surveyor, to define more clearly their respective limits. ---The Great Square in the Center of the Township and the principal Streets, were also marked out in the same manner by the Surveyor. The name of the Town, painted on a Board and nailed to a strong lofty Post, was put up close to the beautiful Bank, immediately above and overlooking Pugh's Lagoon and the adjoining rich low Lands, where it is intended to erect the Church of Richmond.

I have fortunately been enabled to fix thus the situation of the Town of Richmond on the most eligible and convenient Spot of Ground that could be found in the whole Country, from the circumstance of having got Mr. Nicholas Bayly to relinquish to the Crown a small Farm belonging to him here about 150 acres (for which I give him 300 acres as an Equivalent in another part of the Country) and Wm. Bowman, a Settler, relinquishing also about 25 acres (--for which he receives Sixty acres elsewhere as an equivalent) adjoining to Mr. Bayly's Farm; their Grounds being most beautifully situated running along the top of a fine Bank out of the reach of all inundations, and along which Bank the Front of the new intended Township is marked out, the depth thereof extending backwards into the Public Common. ---After marking out and naming the Township of Richmond, and accurately Surveying the whole of the Ground on which it is to be erected, we returned home to Windsor between 4 and 5 o'clock, and had a large Party of Friends to Dinner in honor of the occasion.---

Friday 11th. Jany. 1811.---
Having sent my Horses across the River at Windsor to meet me opposite to Blighton, I proceeded to the latter place in the Carriage with Mrs. Macquarie this morning immediately after Breakfast, in order to survey the Townships of Wilberforce and Pitt Town once, and to mark out their limits; being accompanied by the Surveyor and several Gentlemen. ---Leaving Mrs. M. at Blighton I crossed the River in a Boat, and mounting my Horse rode through the Phillip District to survey the Scite [sic] for the Township intended for this part of the Country; and having finally fixed upon the proper Ground, and the Great Square, Burying Ground, and principal streets being marked out by the Surveyor with Strong Posts, the name /Wilberforce / being Painted on a Board was nailed on a high Post and erected in the middle of the large Square in presence of a great number of the most respectable Settlers in this District. ---I then recrossed the River to Blighton to join Mrs. M. and having rested there a little while, I proceeded again on a fresh Horse (sending Mrs. M. home in the Carriage by the Main Road --) to explore the Ground marked out for the Township of Pitt-Town in the Nelson District. --This Ground is not so good or so conveniently situated for the Settlers in general as might be wished, it being not less than 3 1/2 miles from some few of the Front Farms; but no better is to be had, and therefore there is no alternative left but to place the Town on these Heights --and which I have accordingly determined on. --The Township has consequently been marked out for the Nelson District and named "Pitt-Town"; the Great Square, Burying Ground, and principal Streets being all marked by Strong Posts, describing their respective limits accurately; and the Post with the name of the Town nailed to it, has been erected in the Center of the Great Square.---

Having marked out Pitt-Town, and surveyed the whole of the Grounds accurately, we all returned home to Windsor, where we did not arrive till six o'clock, and then sat down to a good Dinner, finding Mrs. M. safely arrived at home some time before us.---

Saturday 12th. Jany. 1811.---
After Breakfast this morning I rode out attended by the two Surveyors, the Revd. Mr. Cartwright, Mr. Cox, and some other Gentlemen to examine and survey more particularly the Ground marked out for the Town and Township of Windsor -- which having finally fixed on and approved of, a strong Post with the Board on which is painted the name of the Town (--Windsor--) was this forenoon erected on the Scite [sic] of the intended new Church, fronting the north face of the Great Square; a great number of the Settlers and Inhabitants being present when the Post was erected.---

I proceeded afterwards to survey proper Ground for marking out the Glebe (--400 acres--) for the resident clergyman of Windsor, and which was at length fixed on in a very convenient eligible situation within two miles of the Town of Windsor and four miles of that of Richmond, the Land being very good both for Tillage and Pasturage, and extremely well watered, having a large Lagoon forming the northern Boundary of it. ---Here accordingly I directed the Surveyor to mark out a Glebe of 400 acres for the resident Chaplain to be held by him in Trust and by regular grant; and the Revd. Mr. Cartwright has expressed himself highly pleased with the Selection thus made for him.---

After returning from marking out the Glebe, I walked over the whole of the present Village on the Green Hills, forming the beginning or Basis for the Town of Windsor, in which I planned a square and several new streets; directing the old ones to be enlarged and improved in various respects, and at [the] same time marking out several new allotments in the Town for building new Houses according to a prescribed Plan not to be deviated from. ---I gave Mr. Fitzgerald a large allotment in the Square on the express condition of his building immediately thereon a handsome commodious Inn -- of Brick or stone and to be at least two stories high. ---The principal street in the present Town of Windsor, running in a westerly direction from Government Garden or Domain towards the new Township, I have called George Street in honor of his present most gracious Majesty, and which street from the, present square to the new intended one in the Township, will be nearly an English mile long. ---The Square in the present Town I have named "Thompson Square", in honor of the memory of the good and worthy late Andrew Thompson Esqr. Justice of Peace & Principal Magistrate for this District -- and who may justly be said to be the Father and Founder of the Village hitherto known by the name of the Green Hills; there being hardly a vestage [sic] of a single Building here, excepting the Government Granary, when he first came to reside on the Green Hills ten years ago. ---I had a Post erected this afternoon in Thompson Square, having a Board nailed thereon with the name painted on it in large characters; a similar Post and Board having been previously erected at the Eastern extremity of George Street to mark out that street as the main or principal one in the Town of Windsor. ---I have now finished all my plans and arrangements for the five new Townships of Windsor, Richmond, Castlereagh, Pitt-Town and Wilberforce, and trust ere long to see them all in a flourishing and thriving state.---

The Revd. Mr. & Mrs. Cartwright, Mr. Cox, Dr. Mileham and Mr. Fitzgerald dined with us this day -- and we again drank success and prosperity to the new Townships. ---

Sunday 13th. Jany. 1811.---
Mrs. Macquarie and myself went to Church at Windsor, and had an excellent Sermon from the Revd. Mr. Cartwright.

We had Mr. Cox & his wife & Family, Mrs. Bell, Mr. & Mrs. Evans, Dr. and Miss Arndells, Dr. Mileham and several other Friends to dine with us today previous to our return to Sydney. ---

Monday 14th. Jany.---
Set out immediately after Breakfast from Windsor, and arrived at Government House at Parramatta at 1 o'clock; our Servants & Baggage having been sent off thither very early in the morning.---

Tuesday 15th. Jany.---
Set out from Parramatta at 10 o'clock this morning, and arrived at the Government House at Sydney at half past 11 o'clock in the forenoon. ---


F I N I S ---

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