Professor Alberto Avolio

Professor Alberto AvolioProfessor of Biomedical Engineering

The Australian School of Advanced Medicine, Macquarie University

Contact Details

The Australian School of Advanced Medicine
2 Technology Place, Macquarie University NSW 2109, Australia
Tel: +61 (0)2 9850 2747
Fax: +61 (0)2 9850 2701

External Appointments and Awards

  • RT Hall Prize in Cardiology, Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand
  • Scientific Advisory Committee, AtCor Medical Pty Ltd
  • NHMRC Grant Review Panel, (2010)
  • Visiting Professor, University of Malaya
  • Visiting Professor, Tokyo Medical University
  • Fellow International Academy of Medical and Biological Engineering

Membership and Committees

External Assessor for: National Health and Medical Research Council Project Grants, Development Grants and Senior Fellowships; Australian Research Council; National Heart Foundation Project Grants; Italian Ministry of Science and Technology; Pfizer Medical Fellowship Grants; Innovation and Technology Commission, Government of Hong Kong Special Administrative Region; Marsden Foundation, New Zealand, Ophthalmic Research Institute of Australia; Prince Charles Medical Research Foundation; Flanders Research Foundation; Ministry of Science and Innovation, New Zealand.

  • Asian Pacific Editor Artery Research (Elsevier)
  • Associate Editor Pulse (Karger, Basel)
  • Editorial Board Member Journal of Hypertension (International Society of Hypertension)
  • Editorial Board Member Hypertension (American Heart Association).
  • Editorial Board Member Current Hypertension Reviews (Benthamscience)
  • Editorial Board Member Journal of the American Society of Hypertension (Elsevier)
  • Editorial Board Member Advanced Biomedical Engineering (Japanese Soc. Med. Biol. Eng)

Professional Overview

Professor Alberto Avolio, BE, PhD (UNSW), FIAMBE, is Professor of Biomedical Engineering in The Australian School of Advanced Medicine at Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia. He has acquired international recognition in the field of cardiovascular haemodynamics. He has taught in the fields of cardiovascular dynamics and in the broad area of engineering in medicine and biology and has extensive experience in PhD supervision and in examination of local and international higher degree theses. Current research areas include pulsatile relationships between blood pressure and flow, characterization of pressure-dependent indices of vascular function, cellular and molecular mechanisms of arterial stiffness, pulse wave analysis and non-invasive estimation of central aortic pressure, retinal vascular function and non-invasive assessment of cerebral dynamics, cerebral aneurysms, cardiovascular modelling and biological signal processing. He has received over $7 million in collaborative research grant support and is on the assessment panel of national and international granting bodies. He is on the editorial board of journals of cardiovascular research and hypertension (Hypertension, Journal of Hypertension, Artery Research, Current Hypertension Reviews, Advanced Biomedical Engineering, Pulse) and is a reviewer for over 40 international scientific journals. He has over 170 publications including a book, book chapters and peer reviewed articles.

Professor Avolio is a Visiting Professor at the Tokyo Medical University and external assessor of Biomedical Engineering curriculum at the University of Malaya. He has recently been elected a Fellow of the International Academy of Medical and Biological Engineering.

Areas of Research Interest

  • Pulsatile relationships between arterial blood pressure and flow.Ejection of blood from the heart is by necessity pulsatile. This lends itself to the description blood pressure and flow in arteries in terms of oscillatory phenomena, including concepts of wave propagation in uniform and non-uniform transmission lines, and vascular impedance. These concepts are used in arterial models to simulate changes that occur in large arteries due to ageing and other factors affecting mechanical properties of the arterial wall. Arterial models have recently been extended to predict the response of changes in wave propagation characteristics to gravitational effects due to posture. Models are currently being used to assess the effect of vascular properties on optimization of cardiac resynchronisation therapy.
  • Characterisation of pressure-dependent indices of arterial stiffness.Because of the structure
    of the arterial wall, and the essential non-linear elastic properties, the stiffness of the wall material is a function of the amount of stretch. At low strains, the load is essentially taken up by the elastin fibres, while at high strains it is taken up by the stiffer collagen fibres. This causes the stiffness, and so the pulse wave velocity, to be a function of pressure. This phenomenon is used to obtain characteristic curves in the rodent aorta. These experiments are used to compare indices of isobaric stiffness indices in rodent models to investigate factors that alter intrinsic vascular stiffness. To date these include the effects of genetically determined hypertension, ionizing radiation and inflammation, induced calcification, effect of early treatment with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition, genetic strains of polycystic kidney disease, neurogenic modulation and effects of heart rate using external pacing.
  • Cellular and molecular mechanism of arterial stiffness. Recent advances in molecular biology of nitric oxide (NO) are elucidating novel pathways involving effects of NO in post-translational modification of proteins. We are investigating how changes in the bioavailability of NO in endothelial cells causes alterations in molecules that can affect the integrity of the extracellular matrix, and so modulate vascular stiffness. Investigations on the interaction between NO and tissue tranglutaminase (TG2) are the subject of two recent major collaborative research grants (NIHGrant 1R01HL105296-01; ARC- DP110101134, see below). Investigations will be conducted in-vivo in rat models and in genetically modified mouse models with knock out genes for endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and TG2. In-vitro experiments will be conducted in organ baths using pressure and wire myographs. These experiments will be extended to atherosclerosis mouse models to investigate the interaction of atherogenesis and arterial stiffness.
  • Pulse wave analysis and non-invasive estimation of central aortic pressure. Although there are recognised limitations to the conventional brachial cuff sphygmomanometer, the basic methodology has not changed since Riva Rocci (1896) and Korotkoff (1905) proposed the technique of quantifying the blood pressure in arteries, and so cardiovascular risk. However, since the pressure is measured in the arm, the differences in systolic pressure due to wave propagation phenomena can be substantial, and so changes in peripheral pulse pressure are not accurate estimates of pulse pressure changes at the heart. Techniques have been developed that combine the conventional cuff sphygmomanoter with a peripheral pulse waveform to determine the pressure at the aorta non-invasively. This technique is used to compare changes in peripheral and central pressure with interventions, such as different types of anti-hypertensive agents. Central pressure is also combined with transcranial Doppler flow measured in cerebral arties to produce a multiregression model for non-invasive estimation of changes in intracranial pressure.
  • Retinal vascular function and non-invasive assessment of cerebral dynamics. The magnitude of pulsations of intraocular vessels is determined by the relationship between intraocular pressure and intravascular pressure. The pressure in the larger venous vessels is also related to the pressure of the fluid in the cerebral cavities. The pulsations of retinal vessels are detected by a device using laser Doppler techniques. By altering the magnitude of the pulsations by means of pharmacologically induced changes in intraocular pressure, statistical models can be constructed to estimate the magnitude of intracranial pressure. These techniques are being combined with MRI scans for quantification of cerebral fluid flow using phase contrast methodology to assess conditions of altered pressure and volume of intracranial fluid.
  • Haemodynamics and cerebrovascular function. In collaboration with other researchers, haemodynamc investigations are applied to vascular malformations in the brain (cerebral aneurysms) using computational fluid dynamics and finite element analysis is used to simulate idealized vascular structures to study the effects of morphology and blood flow on aneurysm formation and rupture. Student projects are co-supervised with the aim to improve management and treatment of unruptured aneurysms when detected during medical imaging procedures. Research projects also combine haemodynamic and mechanical analysis with molecular biomarkers.
  • Activation of baroreceptors for treatment of resistant hypertension. Treatment of high blood pressure is not always successful using pharmacological agents. Recent studies have shown that what was once thought to be a short-term controller of blood pressure (the baroreceptor system), can also be used for long term control. This is done by electrical stimulate of nerves on the carotid artery in the neck. Investigations are underway to elucidate mechanisms responsible for the long term control of blood pressure using this technique and to uncover additional cardiovascular benefits beyond the reduction of blood pressure. This is done in collaboration with the US company that produces the stimulation technology (CVRx) as part of an ARC linkage grant.


Mark Butlin, BE, PhD, Research Associate
Research Focus: 
Dr Butlin's research focus is in the application of functional measurements of vascular properties to the understanding of underlying mechanisms of arterial stiffness. Mark has been instrumental in developing methodology for accurate measurements of pulse transit time in the rat aorta to quantify pressure dependency of pulse wave velocity. These techniques are fundamental to a number of doctoral research projects. He will now extend these techniques to the mouse aorta where experiments will be conducted in cross-bred strains of genetically modified mice for endothelial nitric oxide (eNOS-/-) and tissue tranglutaminase 2 (TG2-/-) to investigate the interaction of cellular and molecular processes related to modification of the extracellular matrix affecting vascular stiffness. Other areas include pulse wave analysis and non-invasive quantification of arterial properties in humans.

Current Students

PHD Candidates
  • Audrey Adji                         Age-related changes in aortic pressure and flow
  • Isabella (Ya-Wen) Tan        Effects of heart rate on vascular properties
  • Miok Kim                              Pulse wave analysis and non-invasive estimation of intracranial pressure
  • George Lindesay                Neurogenic effects on large artery function
  • Kayla Viegas                      Interaction of cellular and extracellular processes on vascular stiffness
  • Nyan Khin                           Investigation of clinical applications of vascular access devices
  • Francesca Giudici              Haemodynamics in aortic wrap model
  • Stephen Woodford             Relevance of heart rate in determination of peripheral resistance
  • Djahida Bedja                     Vascular function in transgenic mice (Johns Hopkins University).
  • Bhargava Avadhanam       Endothelial function and vascular stiffness
  • Parisa (Zahra) Kouchaki     Baroreceptor activation and vascular function
PHD Completions (since 2011)
  • Keith (Wan-Kee) Ng             Characterisation of pressure-dependent stiffness of the rat aorta
  • Mojtaba Golzan                    Analysis of pulsatile function of the retinal vasculature
  • Wendy (Ying-Yi) Liu            Effects of ionizing radiation on vascular stiffness
  • Azadeh Farnoush               Finite element modelling of cerebral aneurysms

External Collaborations

  • Prof Michael O'Rourke St Vincent's Clinic, Sydney, Australia
  • Dr Ahmad Qasem AtCor Medical, Sydney, Australia
  • Prof John Cockcroft Wales Heart Research Institute, Cardiff UK
  • Dr Ian Wilkinson University of Cambridge, UK
  • Dr Carmel McEniery University of Cambridge, UK
  • Prof Dan Berkowitz Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, USA
  • Prof Subroto Chattejee, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, USA
  • Prof Kenji Takazawa, Tokyo Medical University, Tokyo,Japan
  • Prof Pierre Boutouyrie INSERM U970. European Hospital, Paris, France
  • Prof Giuseppe Schillaci University of Perugia, Italy
  • Dr. Marek Czosnyka University of Cambridge, UK
  • Prof Jiguang Wang Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine
  • Dr. Kalaivani Chellappan University Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi
  • Dr. Einly Lim University of Malaya, KL
  • A/Prof Eun-Hwa SOHN Kangwon National University, South Korea

Grants (Last 10 years)

  • 2013-2015 Australian Research Council, ARC Linkage Grant (LP13010734).   Haemodynamc investigations of flow diverter stents for the treatment of intracranial aneurysms.Sen(Qian) I (Y). W. Chong, A Avolio, M. Morgan, W Yang, M Umezu, R (Collaborating Organisations: MicroVention, N.Stenning) ($280,000, 3 years)
  • 2013-2015 Australian Research Council, ARC Linkage Grant (LP13010423).  Technology optimsation of integrated circuits with applications to wireless communication systems in medicine. M Heimlick, A. Avolio, N. Weste, A.Parker, K.Essele, J. (Collaborating Organisations: M/A Technology Solutions; University of Sheffield) ($210,000, 3 years)
  • 2012-2014 National Health and Medical Research Council. Project Grant (AP1030297).Vascular and neurogenic determinants of hypertension in chronic kidney disease. J. Phillips, A. Avolio A.  P. Pilowsky.  ($491,010, 3 years)
  • 2012-2014 Australian Research Council, ARC Linkage Grant (LP120100463). Blood pressure control by neural activation: underlying mechanisms of electric field stimulation and photostimulation of genetically targeted neurones.. A. Avolio, P Pilowsky, G.Town, E Dutkiewicz, E. Goldys. Collaborative Organisation, CVRx Inc (Minneapolis, USA) ($288,000; 3 years).
  • 2010-2013 US National Institutes of Health (NIH), Grant 1R01HL105296-01. Transglutaminase 2 S-Nitrosylation: Role in Age-Related Vascular Stiffness. D Berkowitz, L Santhanam, N Flafahan, T Abraham, D Nyhan, A Belkin, A Avolio (USD $1,000,000).
  • 2011-2013 Australian Research Council, ARC Discovery Grant (DP110101134), Arterial stiffness:mechanistic role of interaction of cellular processes and the extracellular matrix. A Avolio, R Graham, D Berkowitz ($370,000).
  • 2011-2013 Australian Research Council, ARC Discovery Grant (DP110102985), Mechanisms of initiation and remodeling of intracranial aneurysms: a synthesis of hemodynamics and molecular biomarkers . I Sen (Qian), J Tu, A Avolio, M Morgan, Y Murayama, M Umezu. ($315,000).
  • 2009-2013 Australian Research Council, ARC Linkage Grant (LP0990263), Computational haemodynamics system for prediction of risk of rupture of cerebral aneurysms.. A Avolio, Y Qian, M Morgan, M Stoodley, M Umezu. Collaborative Organisations: GE Health; Alfred Imaging ($660,000).
  • 2008-2011 Australian Research Council, ARC Linkage Grant (LP0884094), Non-invasive measurement of intra-cranial pressure by means of transcranial Doppler blood flow and central aortic pressure. A Avolio, M Morgan, A Qasem. Collaborative Organisation: AtCor Medical ($97,881).
  • 2007-2010 Australian Research Council, ARC Discovery Grant (DP0773971. Effect of structural and cellular properties of the arterial wall on functional stiffness of large arteries. A Avolio, J Cockcroft, I Wilkinson ($290,000)
  • 2009 Perpetual Trust-Hillcrest Foundation, Research Grant. Characterisation of vascular structure and function in diabetic retinopathy using high resolution dynamic imaging. A Avolio ($50,000)
  • 2009 Macquarie University, Safety Net Scheme, (9200800914). Neurogenic effects on regulation of arterial stiffness. A Avolio ($20,000).
  • 2009 Macquarie University , Research Infrastructure Block Grants (RIBG). Optiscan ultra-high resolution Fluorescent In Vivo Endomicroscope 1 (FIVE 1) A Avolio + ASAM Researchers ($79,957)
  • 2008 Ophthalmic Research Inst of Australia. Research Grant. Central blood pressure and arterial waveform analysis in glaucoma: association with vascular factors. S Graham, M Butlin, A Avolio ($50,000)
  • 2008 Macquarie University, Research Development Scheme (RDS 9200800457). Effect of arterial stiffness on regulation of cerebral blood flow. A Avolio, M Butlin, M Morgan($49,519)
  • 2007 Macquarie University, Safety Net Scheme, (9200729273). Integrated mathematical model of dynamic coupling of neurological and vascular systems in cardiovascular control. A Avolio ($20,000)
  • 2007 Macquarie University, Research Infrastructure Block Grants (RIBG). Inchworm Micromanipulator and Bioamplifier. P Pilowsky (CI) and ASAM Research Staff (A Avolio)($29,000)
  • 2007 Macquarie University, Research Infrastructure Block Grants (RIBG). INSTRON Model 5542 tensile testing system Macquarie University. A Avolio (CI), + ASAM Research Staff ($39,000)
  • 2007 University of New South Wales, Goldstar Award. Mechanisms of inflammation-related arterial stiffness. A Avolio, J Cockcroft, I Wilkinson ($40,000).
  • 2007 University of New South Wales, Faculty Research Grant. Correlates of arterial structure and function in the rat aorta. A Avolio, M Butlin ($15,000).
  • 2004-2006 British Heart Foundation (University of Cambridge). Endothelial function and large artery stiffness. A Avolio, J Cockcroft, I Wilkinson ($51,837).
  • 2003-2006 Australian Research Council, ARC Linkage Grant (LP0349227). Regulation of large artery stiffness by endothelium-derived mediators and effects on the arterial pressure waveform. A Avolio, J Cockcroft, I Wilkinson. Collaborative Organisation: GlaxoSmithKline ($93,099).
  • 2004 University of New South Wales, Research Infrastructure Block Grants (RIBG). Burst spectrum analyser (BSA) for laser Doppler anemometer. GSBME Staff +A Avolio ($50,000)
  • 2002-2004 British Heart Foundation PG02/103/14429. Endothelin-1 and the regulation of arterial stiffness. IB Wilkinson, CM McEniery, JR Cockcroft +A Avolio (Ass.Investigator)($140,727)
  • 2002-2005 Research Council, Linkage Grant (LP0235210). Analysis of non-invasive central aortic pressure using a Web-based international database. A Avolio, N Lovell; Collaborative Organisation: AtCor Medical Pty Ltd. ($111,135)
  • 2000-2003 Resmed Pty Ltd. Non-invasive blood pressure measurement. A. Avolio A. Walsh ($124,705)

Publications (Last 10 years)

Book Chapters

  • Avolio AP, Butlin M, Tan I. Heart rate, synchrony and arterial hemodynamics. In Pulse Pressure and Arterial Stiffness in Cardiovascular Prevention (Safar ME, O'Rourke MF, Frohlich ED Eds), Springer, 2014 (In press)
  • Avolio AP, Butlin M, Protogerou AD. Pulse pressure amplification and arterial stiffness in middle age. In Pulse Pressure and Arterial Stiffness in Cardiovascular Prevention (Safar ME, O'Rourke MF, Frohlich ED Eds), Springer, 2014 (In press)         
  • Avolio A, Butlin M. Winter D. Blood Pressure. In JG Webster (ed) The Physiological Measurement Handbook.  CRC Press. 2014 (in press)
  • Avolio A, Benetos A. Heart Rate, Pulse Pressure and Arterial Stiffness. In Handbook of Hypertension, Arterial Stiffness, End-Organ Damage and Cardiovascular Prevention. ME Safar and MF O'Rourke) (Editors) 2006, Elsevier

Refereed Journals

  • Ooi HL, Ng SC, Lim E, Salamonsen RF, Avolio A, Lovell NH. Robust aortic valve non-opening detection for different cardiac conditions. Artificial Organs 2014 (in press)
  • Avolio A. Central aortic blood pressure and management of hypertension: confirmation of a paradigm shift? Hypertension 2013 Dec;62(6):1005-7
  • Cremer A, Codjo L, Butlin M, Papaioannou G, Yeim, Jan E, Kiat H, Avolio A, Gosse P. Determination of central blood pressure by a non-invasive method (brachial blood pressure and QKD interval): a non-invasive validation. J Hypertension 2013;31(9):1847-1852
  • Ng SC, Lim E, Mason DG, Avolio AP, Lovel NH. Evaluation of suction detection during different pumping states in an implantable rotary blood pump Artificial Organs 2013;37(8):E145-E154.
  • Avolio A. Arterial stiffness. Pulse 2013;1:14-28
  • Jung S, Jandu S, Steppan S, Belkin A, Pak A, Nyhan D, Butlin M, Viegas K, Avolio A, Berkowitz D, Santhanam L. Increased Tissue Transglutaminase Activity Contributes to Central Vascular Stiffness in eNOS Knockout Mice. Am J Physiol (Heart) 2013; 305(6):H803-10
  • Butlin, M, Battista F, Bozec E, McEniery CM, Millet-Amaury E, Pucci G, Qasem A, Wilkinson IB, Schillaci G, Boutouyrie P, Avolio AP. Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity assessment using novel cuff-based techniques: comparison with tonometric measurement. J.Hypertens 2013;31(11):2237-2243.
  • Avolio A, Butlin M. Reflections on systolic and diastolic augmentation. J. Hypertension 2013;31(1):32-34.
  • Avolio A, Parati G. Improvement on cuff measurement of arterial pressure- more cuffs! J. Hypertension 2013;31(2):251-2
  • Avolio A, Grassi G. Haemoglobin: subtle scavenger of nitric oxide and modulator of retinal blood flow. J. Hypertension 2013;31(4);661-662
  • Sen Y, Qian Y, Avolio AP, Morgan M. Development of image segmentation methods for intracranial aneurysms. Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine 2013, Article ID 715325, 7 pages.
  • Varsos G, de Riva N, Smielewski P, Pickard J, Brady KM, Avolio A, Czosnyka M. Critical closing pressure during intracranial plateau waves.  Neurocrit Care 2013;18(3):341-348.
  • Turner MJ. Graham SL, Avolio AP, Mitchell P. Potential effects of systematic errors in intraocular pressure measurements on screening for ocular hypertension. Eye 2013; 27(4):502-506.
  • Avolio A. Heart rate variability and stroke: strange attractors with loss of complexity. J Hypertens. 2013 Aug;31(8):1529-1531
  • Francis SE, Tu J, Qian Y, Avolio AP. A combination of genetic, molecular and haemodynamic risk factors contribute to the formation, enlargement and rupture of brain aneurysms J Clin Neuroscience 2013;20(7):912-918
  • Varsos G, Richards H, Kasprowicz M, Budohoski K, Brady K, Reinhard M, Avolio A, Smielewski P, Pickard J, Czosnyka M. Critical closing pressure determined with a model of cerebrovascular impedance. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2013;33(2):235-243
  • Farnoush A, Avolio A, Qian Y. Effect of bifurcation angle configuration and ratio of daughter diameters on hemodynamics of bifurcation aneurysms Am J Neuroradiology 2013;34(2):391-396 
  • Phillips CL, Butlin M, Wong KK, Avolio A. Is Obstructive Sleep Apnea causally related to Arterial Stiffness? A critical review of the experimental evidence. Sleep Medicine Reviews 2013 Feb;17(1):7-18
  • Graham SL, Butlin M, Lee M, Avolio AP. Central blood pressure, arterial waveform analysis, and vascular risk factors in glaucoma. J Glaucoma. 2013;22(2):98-103
  • Golzan SM, Avolio A, Graham SL. Hemodynamic interactions in the eye: A Review, Ophthalmologica, 2012;228(4):214-221
  • Ng K, Butlin M, Avolio AP, Persistent effect of early, brief, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition on segmental pressure dependency of aortic in spontaneously hypertensive rats. J Hypertension 2012;30(9):1782-1790.
  • Cremer A, Butlin M, Codjo L, Coulon P, Ranouil X, Joret C, Coste P, Asmar R, Avolio A, Gosse P. Determination of central blood pressure by a noninvasive method (brachial BP and QKD interval). J Hypertension 2012;30(8):1533-1539
  • Salum E, Kampus P,Zilmer  M, Eha J, Butlin M, Avolio AP, Põdramäg T, Arend A, Aunapuu, Kals J. Effect of vitamin D on aortic remodeling in streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Cardiovascular Diabetology 2012, 11:58.
  • Avolio A, Butlin M, Xu K. Reflections on determinants of augmentation index. J Hypertension. 2012;30(2):267-268.
  • Tan I, Butlin M, Liu, YY, Nh, K, Avolio AP . Heart rate dependence of aortic pulse wave velocity at different arterial pressures in rats. Hypertension 2012;60:528-553.
  • Takazawa K, Kobayashi H, Kojima I, Aizawa A, Kinoh M, Sugo Y, Shimizu M, Miyawaki Y, Tanaka N, Yamashina A, Avolio A. Estimation of central aortic systolic pressure using late systolic inflection of radial artery pulse and its application to vasodilator therapy. J Hypertension, 2012; 30(5):908-916.
  • Golzan SM,, Kim M, Seddighi AS, Avolio A Graham S,.Non-invasive estimation of cerebrospinal fluid pressure waveforms by means of retinal venous pulsatility and central aortic blood pressure. Annals of Biomed Eng 2012;40(9):1940-1948.
  • Golzan  SM, Graham SL, Leaney J,  Cordina R, Celemajer D, Avolio A. Spontaneous retinal venous pulsatility in patients with cyanotic congenital heart disease . Heart Vessels. 2012;26(6):618-623.
  • Avolio A, Butlin M, Liu Y-Y, Viegas K, Avadhanam B, Lindesay G. Regulation of arterial stiffness: Cellular, molecular and neurogenic mechanisms. Artery Research 2011;5(4): 122-127
  • Avolio A, Parati G. Reflecting on posture. J Hypertension. 2011;29(4):655-657.
  • Ng K, Hildreth CM, Phillips JK, Avolio AP. Aortic stiffness is associated with vascular calcification and remodeling in a chronic kidney disease rat model. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2011, Jun; 300(6):F1431-1436.
  • Ng K, Hildreth CM, Avolio AP, Phillips JK Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor limits pulse wave velocity and aortic calcification in a rat model of kidney disease. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2011;301(5):F959-F966.
  • Golzan SM, Avolio A, Graham SL. Minimising retinal vessel artefacts in optical coherence tomography images, Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 2011;104(2):206-211.
  • Golzan SM, Graham SL, Leaney J, Avolio A. Dynamic association between intraocular pressure and spontaneous pulsations of retinal veins. Curr Eye Res. 2011 Jan;36(1):53-9. PubMed PMID: 21174598.
  • Cockcroft JR, Wilkinson IB, Avolio AP, McEniery CM, Butlin M. Weight loss,blood pressure reduction, and aortic stiffness: an old dilemma revisited. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2011 Mar;19(3):468. PubMed PMID: 21346741.
  • Avolio A, Butlin M, Walsh A. Arterial blood pressure measurement and pulse wave analysis - their role in enhancing cardiovascular assessment. Physiological Measurement (Topical review), 2010;31: R1-R47.
  • Haghighipour N, Tafazzoli-Shadpour M, Avolio A. Residual stress distribution in a lamellar model of the arterial wall. J Med Eng Technol. 2010 ;35(7-8):422-428.
  • Ayer JG, Harmer JA, Marks GB, Avolio A, Celermajer DS. Central arterial pulse wave augmentation is higher in girls than boys, independent of height. J Hypertension 2010. 28:308-313
  • Hickson SS, Butlin M, Broad J, Avolio AP, Wilkinson IB, McEniery CM. Validity and repeatability of the Vicorder apparatus: a comparison with the SphygmoCor device. Hypertens Res.2009;32(12):1079-1085.
  • Avolio AP, van Bortel L, Boutouyrie P, Cockcroft J, McEniery CM, Protogerou AD, Roman MJ, Safar, ME, Segers P, Smulyan H. The role of pulse pressure amplification in arterial hypertension: experts' opinion and review of the data. Hypertension 2009; 54:375-383.
  • De Melis M, Morbiducci U, Rietzschel ER, De Buyzere M, Qasem A, Van Bortel L, Claessens T, Montevecchi FM, Avolio A, Segers P. Blood pressure waveform analysis by means of wavelet transform. Med Biol Eng Comput. 2009, 47:165-173.
  • Avolio AP. Input impedance of distributed arterial structures as used in investigations of underlying concepts in arterial haemodynamics. Med Biol Eng Comput. 2009, 47:143-151.
  • Avolio A, Westerhof B, Seibes M, Tyberg J. Arterial hemodynamics: wave analysis in the frequency and time domain. Med Biol Eng Comput 2009, 47:107-110.
  • Avolio A, Grassi G. Flow-medicated dilatation as a biomarker for cardiovascular risk in hypertension. J Hypertension 2008; 26:1546-1547.
  • Khani MM, Tafazzoli-Shadpour M, Delavarpour S, Naghizadeh Sh, Avolio A. Dynamic stress analysis of the arterial wall utilizing physiological pressure waveforms. Am J Applied Sciences 2008: 5(10):1285-1290.
  • Avolio A. Central aortic pressure and cardiovascular risk: a paradigm shift?. Hypertension 2008; 51(6):1470-1471.
  • Lauto A, Foster LJR, Avolio A, Sampson D, Raston C, Sarris M, McKenzie G, Stoodley M. Sutureless Nerve Repair with Laser-Activated Chitosan Adhesive: A Pilot in vivo Study. Photomedicine and Laser Surg 2008 ;26(3):227-234.
  • Matthys KS, Kalmar AF, Struys MMRF, Mortier EP, Avolio AP Segers P, Verdonk PR. Long-term pressure monitoring with arterial applanation tonometry: a non-invasive alternative during clinical intervention?.Technology & Health Care 2008; 16:183-193
  • O'Rourke MF, Avolio AP. Arterial transfer functions: background, applications and reservations. Journal of Hypertension 2008:26:8-10.
  • Qasem A, Avolio A. Determination of Aortic pulse wave velocity from waveform decomposition of the central aortic pressure wave. Hypertension 2008; 51:188-195.
  • McEniery C, Wilkinson I, Avolio A. Age, hypertension and arterial function. Clinical and Exp Pharmacol and Physiol 2007; 34:665-671.
  • Lauto A, Stoodley M, Marcel H, Avolio A, Sarris M, McKenzie G, Sampson DD, Foster LJR. In vitro and in vivo tissue repair with laser-activated chitosan adhesive. Lasers in Surgery and Med. 2007; 39:19-27
  • Westerhof BE, Guelen I, Westerhof N, Karemaker JM, Avolio A. Quantification of wave reflection in the human aorta from pressure alone. Hypertension 2006; 48(4):595-601
  • Naylor JM, McLean AS, Chow CM Heard R, Ting I, Avolio A. A modified postural drainage position produces less cardiovascular stress than a head-down position in patients with severe heart disease: A quasi-experimental study Aust J Physio 2006;52:201-209.
  • Amatoury J, Howitt L, Wheatley JR, Avolio AP, Amis TC. Snoring-related energy transmission to the carotid artery in rabbits. J Appl Physiol. 2006;100(5):1547-53
  • Schmitt M, Avolio A, Qasem A, McEniery CM, Butlin M, Wilkinson IB, Cockcroft JR. Basal NO locally modulates human iliac artery function in vivo. Hypertension. 2005;46(1):227-231.
  • Naylor JM, Chow CM, McLean A, Heard R, Avolio A. Cardiovascular responses to short-term head-down positioning in healthy young and older adults. Physiotherapy Research International 2005; 10: 44-59.
  • Lauto A, Hook J, Doran M, Camacho F, Poole-Warren LA, Avolio A, Foster LJ. Chitosan adhesive for laser tissue repair: In vitro characterization. Lasers Surg Med 2005;36(3):193-201
  • Lauto A, Foster LJ, Ferris L, Avolio A, Zwaneveld N, Poole-Warren LA. Albumin-genipin solder for laser tissue repair. Lasers Surg Med. 2004;35(2):140-5.
  • Foong KPT, Watson A, Avolio A. Equipotential earthing study: equipotential wiring is unnecessary. Australian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine , 2004, 27(3):151-154
  • McEniery CM, Schmitt M, Qasem A Webb DJ, Avolio AP, Wilkinson IB, Cockcroft JR Nebivolol increases arterial distensibility in vivo. Hypertension 2004 44: 305-310
  • Schmitt M, Qasem A, McEniery C Wilkinson IB Tatarinoff , Noble K, Klemes J, Payne N Frenneaux MP, Cockcroft J, Avolio A The role of natriuretic peptides in regulation of conduit artery distensibility. Am J Physiol. Heart Circ Physiol 287:H1167-1171, 2004
  • Camacho F. Avolio A, Lovell NH. Estimation of Pressure Pulse Amplification Between Aorta and Brachial Artery Using Stepwise Multiple Regression Models. Physiological Measurement 2004, 25:1-11
  • Avolio AP, Kerkhof PLM. On tubes, strings and resonance in the arterial system-what makes the beat go on. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 2004;51(1):196-197.
  • Avolio A. Pulse pressure and inflammatory markers. J Hypertension, 2004, 22:1-3.
  • McEniery CM, Qasem A, Avolio AP, Cockcroft JR, Wilkinson IB Endothelin-1 regulates local arterial stiffness in vivo. JACC 2003;42:1975-1981.
  • Avolio A. Salt sensitivity and arterial structure and function. J Hypertension, 2003; 21:251-253
  • Avolio A. The finger volume pulse and assessment of arterial properties. J Hypertension. 2002;20:2341-2343
  • Pannier BM, Avolio AP, Hoeks A, Mancia G, Takazawa K. Methods and devices for measuring arterial compliance in humans. Am J Hypertension 2002;15:743-735
  • Avolio A, O'Rourke M. Baroreceptor function: improved characterisation by use of central vascular parameters compared with peripheral pressure. J Hypertension, 2002 :20:1067-1070
  • Wilkinson I, Qasem A, McEniery CM Webb DJ, Avolio AP, Cockroft J. Nitric oxide regulates local arterial distensibility in vivo. Circulation 2002;105:213-217.


Refereed Conference Proceedings

  • Gaudenzi F, Avolio AP. Lumped parameter model of cardiovascular-respiratory interaction.   Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2013 Jul;2013:473-476.
  • Avolio AP, Xu K, Butlin M. Application of cardiovascular models in comparative physiology and blood pressure variability. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc.2013 Jul;2013:217-220
  • Avolio AP, Xu K, Butlin M. Effect of large arteries on blood pressure variability. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc.2013, Jul;2013:4078-4081
  • Golzan SM, Avolio AP, Graham SL. Non-invasive cerebrospinal fluid pressure estimation using multi-layer perceptron neural networks . Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2012;228(4):214-221
  • Xu K, Butlin M, Avolio AP. Assessment of hemodynamic load components affecting optimization of cardiac resynchronization therapy by lumped parameter model. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2012; :6661-6664
  • Butlin M, Qasem A, Avolio AP. Estimation of central aortic pressure waveform features derived from the brachial cuff volume displacement waveform. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2012; 2591-2594
  • Golzan SM, Avolio AP, Magnussen J, Graham SL. Visualization of orbital flow by means of phase contrast MRI. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2012; 3384-3387
  • Farnoush A, Qian Y, Avolio AP, Takao H, Murayama Y. Effect of saccular aneurysm and parent artery morphology on hemodynamics of cerebral bifurcation aneurysms. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2012;6677-6680
  • Giudici F, Qian Y, O'Rourke M, Avolio AP. Simulation of reduction of proximal aortic stiffness by an elastic wrap and effects on pulse pressure. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2012; 657-660
  • Kim MO, Li J, Qasem A, Avolio AP, Graham SL. Frequency dependent transmission characteristics between arterial blood pressure and intracranial pressure in rats. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2012; 5614-5147
  • Avolio AP, Xu K, Butlin M. Effect of arterial load on optimization of cardiac resynchronization therapy: a modeling Study. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc.2012.
  • Avolio AP, Qasem A, Butlin M. Estimation of central aortic pressure from the peripheral pulse: potential benefits beyond the conventional measurement of brachial cuff pressure. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc.2012.
  • Farnoush A,  Qian Y, Avolio A Effect of inflow on computational fluid dynamic simulation of cerebral bifurcation aneurysms Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2011;2011:1025-1028
  • u K, Butlin M, Avolio A Effects of pressure-dependent segmental arterial compliance and posture changes on pulse wave transmission in an arterial model of the human upper limb. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc.2011;2011:6450-6453.PubMed PMID: 22255815.
  • Golzan SM, Mikaili M, Sedighi A, Avolio, A, Karimi A. Non-invasive intracranial pressure measurement using transcranial doppler sonography and support vector machines. World Congress Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Munich,7-12 Sept, 2009.
  • Avolio A, Farnoush A, Morgan M, Qian Y. Hemodynamic models of cerebral aneurysms for assessment of effect of vessel geometry on risk of rupture. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2009;2009:2351-3. PubMed PMID: 19965184
  • Bia D, Avolio A, Zocalo Y, Armentano R. Non-symmetrical double-logistic analysis of 24-hour arterial stiffness profile in normotensive and hypertensive subjects. 30th Ann Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc (Aug 20-24), 2008, Vancouver.
  • Haghighipour N, Tafazzoli Shadpour M, Avolio A. Residual stress and circumferential stress distribution in a finite element model of the arterial wall. American Society of Mechanical Engineers paper no: ESDA2004-58313, Conference, Manchester, July 2004)
  • Tafazzoli Shadpour M. Avolio A, Delavarpour S. Finite element modelling and dynamic stress analysis of the arterial wall with physiological arterial pressure waveforms. American Society of Mechanical Engineers; paper no: ESDA2004-58304, Conference, Manchester, July, 2004).


  • Avolio A, Butlin M Tan I. Importance of pressure pulse amplification in the association of resting heart rate and arterial stiffness. Hypertension 2013 Dec;62(6):e46.
  • O'Rourke MF, Avolio A, Safar M, Nichols W. Changes in the central arterial pressure pulse with aging. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2010 May 11;55(19):2183; author reply 2184. PubMed PMID: 20447548.
  • Phillips CL, Avolio A, Grunstein RR. Endothelial function and arterial stiffness in OSA using pulse wave analysis. Am J Resp Crit Care Med, 2009;179: 969 (letter).
  • Qasem A Avolio A. Response to: determination of aortic pulse wave velocity from waveform decomposition of the central aortic pressure wave. Hypertension, 2008; 51(6), e61-e62.
  • Avolio AP, Cockcroft JR, O'Rourke MF. Use of arterial transfer functions for the derivation of central aortic waveform characteristics in subjects with type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Diabetes Care. 2004;27(10):2564-5 (Let)
  • Safar ME, Avolio A. Aldosterone antagonism and arterial stiffness. Hypertension, 2004, Feb (43(2) (let)
  • O'Rourke MF, Kim M, Adji A, Nichols WW, Avolio A. Use of arterial transfer function from derivation of aortic waveform characteristics. J Hypertension, 2004; 22:431-434 (let)