Department of Modern History, Politics and International Relations

Project Outcomes

ARC assisted Linkage Project

Harvey Broadbent and Emeritus Professor Duncan Waterson of the Department of Modern History were awarded an ARC Linkage Grant of $422,000 over five years in 2007, their linkage partners in the project being the Australian War Memorial and the Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey. Harvey Broadbent worked as director of the project, entitled "Completing the Gallipoli story: Researching Turkish Archives for a More Comprehensive History", and began investigating the vast collection of material about the Gallipoli campaign held in Turkish archives. These documents include battlefield reports and signals, War Ministry communications, records of prisoner interrogations, aircraft logs and diaries and First World War Turkish press reports. For the Gallipoli centenary in 2015, the result has been the fullest possible account of the Turkish defence at Gallipoli yet produced and a comprehensive history. It also contributes to the deepening relationship between Australia and Turkey at the centenary of the Campaign.


Checking through each file and translating relevant documents was a major task requiring a team of researchers comprising of Gallipoli specialists and Ottoman Turkish scholars. (Osmanlica-the language of the files is a complex language written in the Arabic alphabet and containing many Arabic and Persian words and expressions fused with Turkish).

In addition there is large amount of material in other archival sources in Turkey. Due to the bulk of the material contained within the archives, five years was hardly enough time to conduct the project which required:

  • identifying all documents held in the Turkish General Staff Archives that relate to the Gallipoli Campaign
  • checking their relevance and suitability for translation into English
  • translating as many relevant documents as possible into English for lodgement in Turkish, Australian/NZ national archives
  • producing two books and a project website

Producing two books and a website that reveals the most significant finds for the centenary year in 2015 as a comprehensive history is the Project's ultimate outcome.

The two books Gallipoli, the Turkish Defence, a comprehensive academic reference book, and Defending Gallipoli, a condensed version for the general reader, were published in February 2015 by Melbourne University Press.


Gallipoli from the Turkish perspective. Harvey Broadbent, article in 'Wartime' Issue 38, 2007, (official magazine of the Australian War Memorial),Canberra.
Completing the Story of the Gallipoli Campaign: Researching Turkish Archives For A More Comprehensive History. Harvey Broadbent, Journal of the Society for Army Historical Research, No. 43, Autumn 2007. Brunel University, UK., p.208-223 Download the Article (PDF 345KB)

Researching Gallipoli: The Gallipoli Centenary Turkish Archives Research Project. Harvey Broadbent, lecture presented at Royal United Services Institute of New South Wales and paper published in 'United Service', The Journal of the Royal United Services Institute of New South Wales, No. 59, June 2008, Sydney.

Gallipoli's First Day; Turkish documents separating myth and reality. Harvey Broadbent, article in 'Wartime' Issue 46, April 2009, (official magazine of the Australian War Memorial),Canberra. Download the Article (PDF 53KB)

The Placenames of Gallipoli, leading article in 'Placenames Australia', newsletter if the Australian National Placenames Survey, March 2010. Download the article (PDF 1.11MB)

"A Simple Epic" Gallipoli and the Australian Media. Harvey Broadbent, address presented at Royal United Services Institute of New South Wales and paper published in 'United Service', The Journal of the Royal United Services Institute of New South Wales, No. 61, March 2010, Sydney.

"No room for any lapses in concentration" (General Esat Pasha, 11 August 1915): Ottoman Commanders' responses to the August Offensive in the Anzac sector. Presentation by Harvey Broadbent at Australian War Memorial Conference, August 2010. (published in 'Gallipoli, A Ridge Too Far' Australian War Memorial, 2013)

A survey of Ottoman Anti-Submarine Measures in the Dardanelles 1914-15
Paper delivered to the Kings Hall Naval Conference, Canberra, 22 May 2015.The Strait had always featured prominently in Ottoman defensive considerations and previous belligerent enemy states' offensive considerations, especially since the British navy under Admiral Sir John Duckworth had penetrated to Istanbul (Constantinople) in 1804.  So the Strait and its shores, the Gallipoli Peninsula and the Anatolian side as its guardian terrain, had to be secured. Download paper (PDF 756kb) 

Turkish Medical Arrangements in the Gallipoli Campaign: A General Survey: Chapter in '    ' (Royal Australasian College of Surgeons, April 2015)
On the advent of military operations in the Dardanelles in 1915 the Ottoman authorities realised that seriously large land and sea battles would ensue and that the numbers of dead and wounded would be high. The Ottoman Red Crescent Organisation known in the Turkish of the time as the Hilal-i Ahmer, and nowadays translated as the Kizilay joined with Ottoman Army Medical Units to increase inadequate available facilities. Download the chapter (PDF 1.22mb)