Department of Philosophy

Richard Menary

Richard MenaryBA (Hons) Ulster, MSc Birmingham, PhD King's College London

Richard read for a BA (Hons) in philosophy at the University of Ulster, an MSc in Cognitive Science at the University of Birmingham and then a PhD in philosophy at King's College London. He has taught philosophy at the University of Kent, Birkbeck College Faculty of Continuing Education and as a Senior Lecturer at the University of Hertfordshire and then as a Senior lecturer and head of the department of philosophy at the University of Wollongong. Richard is now an ARC Future Fellow and an Associate Professor.

Current research

Richard's Research interests include:

Philosophy of Mind: Consciousness, the self, mental representations

Philosophy of Cognitive Science: 4E cognition (embodied, embedded, extended, enacted), theory of mind, modularity, cognition and external representations, expertise, neural plasticity, evolution of mind, brain and language.

Philosophy of Biology: Niche construction, cultural evolution, phenotypic plasticity.

Pragmatism: C.S. Peirce, John Dewey.

Virtue theory as it applies to both ethics and cognition/knowledge.

He can supervise Masters and PhD theses in these areas.

Over a number of years Richard has been developing a model of cognition called Cognitive Integration.

Integrated cognitive systems can be understood in the following way: cognition is the coordination of bodily processes of the organism with salient features of the environment, often created or maintained by the organism. A coordinated process allows the organism to perform cognitive tasks that it otherwise would be unable to; or allows it to perform tasks in a way that is distinctively different from and is an improvement upon the way that the organism performs those tasks via neural processes alone. Integrationists think that some cognitive processes turn out to be coordinated. There are several further features of integration that should not be ignored:

1. The coordination of brain, body and environment is governed by social and cultural practices (which are themselves normative phenomena). These are called cognitive practices.

2. Although we might focus on a single organism, many cases of cognitive integration will involve groups of cooperating organisms who share the same cognitive practices.

3. Integrationists are not committed to the view that artefacts and tools are themselves cognitive or mental, nor that a simple causal interaction between two states X and Y makes X part of Y (see Adams and Aizawa 2008).

The introduction to the book, which goes into more detail, can be found here: Introduction to Cognitive Integration

Externally Funded Research:

ARC Future Fellowship 2014-18 $589,656

Macquarie  University Start up Grant for ARC FT 2014-18 $376,000 (start up grant of $100,000 and two PhD stipends including fees, one domestic $86,286 and one international $176,946)

ARC Discovery project Embodied Virtues and Expertise 2010-12 $293,000 over 3 years, Lead Investigator, grant author. Some information about the project can be found here: EVE

Awarded Highly Commended Early Career Researcher Award University of Wollongong $1000

For copies of Richard's publications please go here:


  • The Extended Mind, (ed.) M.I.T. Press 2010 (paperback 2012)
  • Cognitive Integration: Mind and Cognition Unbounded, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan 2007 (paperback in press)
  • Radical Enactivism: Emotion, Intentionality and Phenomenology, (ed.) Consciousness and Emotion series, John Benjamins 2006
Journal Articles
  • "Human Plasticty and the Cultural Evolution of Cognition and Language" Frontiers in Psychology (forthcoming).
  • "The Aesthetic Niche" in The British Journal of Aesthetics.
  • Neural Plasticity, Neuronal Recycling and Niche Construction. Mind & Language 29:3, 286-303 (2014).
  • "Cognitive Transformations and Expertise" (co-author Michael Kirchhoff) in Educational Philosophy and Theory Volume 46, Issue 6,  (2014)
  • "Cognitive Integration, Enculturated Cognition and the Socially Extended Mind" Cognitive Systems Research 2013 25-26: 26-34
  • "Cognitive Practices and Cognitive Character" Philosophical Explorations 15:2 147-64 2012.
  • "The Holy Grail of Cognitivism: A Reply to Adams and Aizawa" in Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences  9: 605-618 December 2010
  • "Dimensions of Mind" in Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 9: 561-578 December 2010
  • "Intentionality, Enactivism and the Extended Mind" in Topoi 28: 31-43 March 2009
  • "Embodied Narratives" in the Journal of Consciousness Studies, 15, no.6: 63-84 June 2008
  • "Writing as Thinking" in Language Sciences 29: 621-632 Sept. 2007
  • "Attacking The Bounds of Cognition" in Philosophical Psychology Vol. 19, No. 3: 329-344 June 2006
  • "Wittgenstein and Peirce on Doubt" in the Contributions of the ALWS, edited by Winfried Löffler & Paul Weingartner  Vol. 26, 230-233 August 2003
Editor of Special Journal Issues, Encyclopaedias and Book Series
  • Joint Series editor (with John Sutton) of New Directions in Philosophy and Cognitive Science.
  • Associate Editor (with John Sutton) of Culture, Evolution and Cognition entries in the 2nd edition of the MIT Encyclopaedia of Cognitive Science.
  • Journal of Consciousness Studies: "The Dialectics of Consciousness and Language" 2008 (with Jordan Zlatev).
  • Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences: "4E Cognition: Embodied Embedded, Enacted, Extended" December 2010
Book Chapters
  • "Cognitive Integration" in The Oxford Handbook of Cognition: Embodied, Embedded, Enacted, Extended eds Gallagher, S. and NEwen A. OUP (forthcoming).
  • "Enculturated Cognition" in the Routledge Handbook of Social Cognition ed. Kiverstein J. Routledge (forthcoming).
  • Tracking in Enculturated Cognitive Systems in Extended Knowledge eds Pritchard D., Palmeros O. and Carter A. OUP (forthcoming).
  • "Pragmatism, Enactivism and Experience" in Where is the Action? The Pragmatic Turn in Cognitive Science, eds., Andreas Engel, Karl Friston and Danica Kragic, MIT Press (forthcoming).
  • "Consciousness" in Where is the Action? The Pragmatic Turn in Cognitive Science, eds., Andreas Engel, Karl Friston and Danica Kragic, MIT Press (forthcoming).
  • "Predictive Coding and Enculturation: A Reply to Fabry" in Open Mind eds. Thomas Metzinger, Jennifer Windt (forthcoming)
  • "Mathematical Cognition: A Case of Enculturation" in Open Mind eds. Thomas Metzinger, Jennifer Windt In T. Metzinger & J. M. Windt (Eds). Open MIND: 25(T). Frankfurt am Main: MIND Group. 2015 doi: 10.15502/9783958570818.
  • "The Enculturated Hand" in The Hand: An Organ of the Mind, Radman, Z. (ed.) Cambridge: MIT Press (2013)
  • "The Extended Mind" in Sage Encyclopaedia of the Mind H Pasher (ed.) Sage (2013).
  • "Our Glassy Essence: Pragmatist Approaches to the Self" in The Oxford Handbook of the Self, Gallagher, S (Ed.) Oxford: OUP 2011
  • "The Extended Mind in Focus" in The Extended Mind, Menary, R. (ed.) Cambridge: MIT Press 2010
  • "Cognitive Integration and the Extended Mind" in The Extended Mind, Menary, R. (Ed.) Cambridge: MIT Press 2010
  • "Intentionality and Consciousness" in Encyclopaedia of Consciousness, Banks, W (ed.) Elsevier 2009
  • "The Virtuous Whisky Drinker" in Whiskey and Philosophy (ed.) Alhoff F. (ed.) Oxford: Blackwell 2009
  • "What is Radical Enactivism?" in Radical Enactivism: Emotion, Intentionality and Phenomenology Menary, R. (ed.) Consciousness and Emotion series, John Benjaminss 2006

Higher Degree Research (HDR) Supervision

Past students (since 2010)

Completed 2010:
PhD Jane Lymer: Adjunct Lecturer UOW

Completed 2013:
PhD Michael Kirchhoff: Now a continuing lecturer at UOW

Completed 2014:
MRes Lachlan Walmsley: Now a PhD candidate at ANU
MPhil Hoda Mostafavi: Now working on a PhD with me
PhD Richard Heersmink: Now on a 3 year Lectureship at MQ
PhD Kate Lynch: Vice Chancellor's Commendation. Now a Postdoctoral Researcher at MQ.

Current students

  • PhD Alex Gillett
  • PhD Hoda Mostafavi
  • PhD Regina Fabry (Mainz)
  • PhD Mirko Farina (Associate)

Conference Presentations and Departmental Colloquia

  1. Extended Knowledge Conference, University of Edinburgh April 2015
  2. Social Cognition Workshop, UOW February 2015
  3. Australasian Association of Cognitive Science Conference, Monash University, December 2014 (invited keynote)
  4. Strungmann Forum October 2014 (invited keynote)
  5. Spindel Conference, University of Memphis October 2014 (invited plenary)
  6. Cultural Evolution and Social Learning in Animals and Humans, August 2014
  7. Information and Distributed Cognition Summer School, University of Montreal July 2014 (invited keynote)
  8. Cognitive Science at Kioala Beach, June 2014
  9. Intellectual Virtues, Group Knowledge and Education, University of Edinburgh, Eidyn Centre for Epistemology, Mind, Normativity, May 2014 (invited keynote)
  10. University of Antwerp, Centre of Philosophical Psychology, May 2014 (invited keynote)
  11. New Zealand Association of Philosophy Conference, December 2013
  12. The Origins of Language, Macquarie University, December 2013 (speaker)
  13. Thinking With Hands, Eyes and Things, Nicholas Copernicus University Poland, November 2013 (invited keynote)
  14. Workshop on Cognitive Integration, Johannes Guttenburg University Mainz, November 2013 (invited keynote)
  15. Workshop on Culture and Cognition, University of Amsterdam, July 2013 (invited, keynote)
  16. The Reach of Radical Enactivism, University of Antwerp, June 2013 (invited, keynote)
  17. Interfaces of the Mind, Bochum University, July 2012 (invited speaker)
  18. Australasian Association of Philosophy, University of Wollongong, July 2012 (speaker)
  19. Extended Mind and Epistemology Amsterdam, June 2012 (invited keynote)
  20. Emergence, University of Wollongong April 2012 (invited speaker)
  21. Enculturated Cognition, Macquarie University March 2012 (speaker)
  22. Cognitive Integration, University of Amsterdam, July 2011 (keynote speaker)
  23. The Extended Expert, University of Hertfordshire July 2011 (speaker)
  24. Epistemology and the Extended Mind, University of Edinburgh, November 2010 (Keynote speaker)
  25. Memory-Media-Movement, Cognition-Culture-Collaboration, Macquarie Centre for Cognitive Science, October 2010 (invited speaker)
  26. Levels of Explanation, UOW, October 2010 (speaker)
  27. Narrative Approaches to the Self and Understanding Others, Macquarie University, Dec 2009 (speaker)
  28. Embodied Cognition, Enactivism and the Extended Mind, UOW, Dec 2009 (speaker)
  29. Neuroethics and the Extended Mind, UOW, Nov 2009 (speaker)
  30. The Australian Association for Cognitive Science, Macquarie University, October 2009 (speaker)
  31. Embodied Skills and Pedagogy, UOW, September 2009 (speaker)
  32. The Hand as an Organ of thought, University of Dubrovnik, May 2009, (invited speaker)
  33. Memory Day, Macquarie Centre For Cognitive Science, October 2008, (invited speaker)
  34. Embodied Cognition, University of Cardiff, July 2008, (invited speaker)
  35. Wittgenstein Symposium, University of Sydney, May 2008, (invited speaker)
  36. Embodied in the Gong, UOW, May 2008 (speaker)
  37. Cognition: Embodied, Embedded, Enacted, Extended, University of Central Florida, October 2007 (invited Plenary Speaker)
  38. Australasian Association of Philosophy, UNE, July 2007 (speaker)
  39. Towards a Science of Consciousness, Budapest, July 2007 (speaker)
  40. Workshop on The Embodied Mind, University of Hull, July 2007, (invited speaker)
  41. Embodied and Situated Cognition: From Phenomenology to Neuroscience and Artificial Intelligence, Torun, Poland November 2006, (invited speaker)
  42. Embodied Cognition Workshop, University of Cardiff, July 2006, invited
  43. The American Philosophical Association, Central Division meeting, April 2006, invited
  44. Symposium on Extended Cognition, University of Antwerp, Belgium, March 2006, invited
  45. Making 3d Visual Research Outcomes Transparent, an invitational symposium and expert seminar, The British Academy, February 2006
  46. Distributed Language, University of Cambridge, September 2005, invited
  47. The Interactive Mind, The University of Sussex, July 2005, invited
  48. Future Discourse: Learning and Teaching in Philosophy, The University of Leeds, July 2005
  49. Workshops on Memory and Embodied Cognition, Macquarie University, Sydney, November, December 2004, invited
  50. Società Italiana di Filosofia Analitica, Where Is Your Head At?  Vietri Sul Mare, Italy, October 2003
  51. Mind and Society, Manchester Metropolitan University, September 2003, invited
  52. The 26th International Wittgenstein Symposium of the Austrian Ludwig Wittgenstein Society, Kirchberg, Austria, August 2003
  53. Integrational Linguistics and Distributed Cognition, University of Durban, South Africa, March 2003, invited
  54. Natural Representations, University of Sydney, June 2002
  55. The Extended Mind: The Very Idea, University of Hertfordshire, 2001

Departmental Invites

  1. University of Cincinnati, October 2014
  2. Australian National University, June 2014
  3. University of Sydney, April 2014
  4. University of Milan, June 2013
  5. Mississippi State University, March 2012
  6. University of Memphis, March 2012
  7. University of Oxford, James Martin Advanced Seminar Series, December 2010
  8. University of Edinburgh, Department of Philosophy, November 2010
  9. University of Stirling, Department of Philosophy, November 2010
  10. University of Hertfordshire, Department of Philosophy, November 2010
  11. University of Sydney, Department of Philosophy, September, 2010
  12. Macquarie University, Department of Philosophy, August 2007
  13. University of Sussex, Department of Cognitive Science, February 2006
  14. University of Murcia, Department of Philosophy, November 2005
  15. University of Hertfordshire, Department of Psychology, March 2005


  1. Union University and Schools Club talk, 2014
  2. ABC National Radio The Philosopher's Zone, In the Zone, 2013 Blackheath Philosophy Talk, 2012
  3. ABC National Radio The Philosopher's Zone, The Extended Mind, 2010

Contact details

Location: Building W6A Room 732
Phone: (61 2) 9850 6896
Fax: (61 2) 9850 8892