Department of Ancient History - Coptic Studies at MQ

First Millennium Bibliography

Selected Bibliography - Coptic Studies/Roman, Byzantine, and Early Islamic Egypt

Compiled by Heike Behlmer

The bibliography given here does not aim at completeness. It is intended for general orientation on a number of subjects, with an emphasis on English language publications and on the Byzantine period (4th - 7th centuries). 


Older Bibliographies:

  • Biedenkopf-Ziehner, A., Koptologische Literaturübersicht, in: Enchoria 2 (1972)-7 (1977-79); 10 (1980).
  • Kammerer, W., A Coptic Bibliography, Ann Arbor 1950.
  • Simon, J., Bibliographie copte, in: Orientalia 18 (1949)-36 (1967).

Current Bibliographies:

  • Orlandi, Tito, Coptic Bibliography, brought up-to-date by supplements, until the middle of the 1990s, now available online at:
  • The acts of the international congresses for Coptic Studies, held every four years, contain various progress reports on Coptic codicology and paleography, literature, liturgy, linguistics, monasticism, gnosticism and manichaeism, Copto-Arabic Studies appeared in the interval between the congresses.
On Coptic literary texts
  • The journal Archiv für Papyrusforschung contains a bibliography on Coptic literary texts, produced by Martin Krause up to the year 1997 (together with an overview on Coptic documentary texts), and continued by Siegfried G. Richter and Gregor Wurst.
On Manichaean texts
  • Mikkelsen, G.B., Bibliographia Manichaica. A Comprehensive Bibliography of Manichaeism through 1996. Corpus Fontium Manichaeorum, Subsidia I, Turnhout 1997.
On the Nag Hammadi Library
  • Scholer, D. M., Nag Hammadi Bibliography 1970-1994. Nag Hammadi and Manichaean Studies 32, Leiden 1997 (continued annually in the journal Novum Testamentum).

A short Bibliography of Egypt in the Greek and Roman and Islamic Period, on the site "Digital Egypt for Universities" University College London A useful, but not comprehensive bibliography of works on different aspects of Graeco-Roman and Islamic Egypt. Titles are given in alphabetical order.

Excellent bibliographies are found in the various introductions to Greek papyrology, such as Rupprecht's or Montevecchi's, see below Greek papyrology.


  • Atiya, Aziz S. (ed.), The Coptic Encyclopedia, 8 vols., New York 1991
  • Entries relevant to Coptic history and culture can be found in many encyclopedias in the fields of theology and ancient history, such as: Encyclopedia of the Early Church, Encyclopedia of Early Christianity, Reallexikon für Antike und Christentum, Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart, Theologische Realenzyklopädie, Dictionnaire d'archéologie chrétienne et de liturgie, Dictionnaire de spiritualité, Pauly-Wissowa's Realencyclopädie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft (and Der Neue Pauly), Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium, Lexikon der Ägyptologie and many more.
  • Krause, Martin (ed.), Ägypten in spätantik-christlicher Zeit. Einführung in die koptische Kultur, Wiesbaden 1998.



  • Bagnall, Roger S., Egypt in Late Antiquity, Princeton 1993.
  • Bagnall, Roger S., Copts, in: The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt, vol. 1, New York 2001, 302-307.
  • Bagnall, Roger S., Roman Occupation, in: The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt, vol. 3, New York 2001, 148-156.
  • Bagnall, Roger S., Egypt, Late Roman, in: Dictionary of the Middle Ages 10, New York 1988, 453-456.
  • Bowman, Alan K., Egypt after the Pharaohs, Oxford 1986.
  • Coptic Encyclopedia: Egypt, Roman and Byzantine Rule in; Egypt, Islamization of; Roman Emperors in Egypt
  • Jones, A. H. M., The Later Roman Empire 284-602. A Social, Economic, and Administrative Survey, 2 voll., Oxford 1964.
  • Lewis, Naphtali, Life in Egypt under Roman Rule, Oxford 1983.
  • Petry, Carl F. (ed.), The Cambridge History of Egypt Volume One: Islamic Egypt 640-1517, Cambridge 1998.

Administration and Taxation

  • Baek Simonsen, Jørgen, Studies in the Genesis and Early Development of the Caliphal Taxation System with Special Reference to Circumstances in the Arab Peninsula, Egypt and Palestine. Copenhagen 1988.
  • Coptic Encyclopedia: Kharaj; Pagarch; Prefect; Provincial Organization of Egypt; Taxation in Roman Egypt,
  • Lallemand, Jacqueline, L'administration civile de l'Egypte de l'avènement de Dioclétien à la création du diocèse (284-382). Contribution à l'étude des rapports entre l'Égypte et l'Empire à la fin du IIIe et au IVe siècle. Académie royale de Belgique, Classe des Lettres, Mémoires t. LVII fasc. 2, Bruxelles 1964.
  • Morimoto, Kosei, The Fiscal Administration of Egypt in the Early Islamic Period. Asian Historical Monographs 1, Dohosha 1981.

Arab Conquest and Early Medieval Egyptian Christianity

  • Anawati, Georges C., The Christian Communities in Egypt in the Middle Ages, in: Michael Gervers and Ramzi Jibran Bikhazi (eds.), Conversion and Continuity. Indigenous Christian Communities in Islamic Lands Eighth to Eighteenth Centuries, Toronto 1990, 237-251.
  • Butler, A. J., The Arab Conquest of Egypt and the Last Thirty Years of the Roman Dominion, 2nd ed. Oxford 1978.
  • Coptic Encyclopedia: Arab Conquest of Egypt; Baqt Treaty; Bashmuric Revolts; Egypt, Islamization of; Fatimid Dynasty; Kharaj; Nubia, Islamization of; Umayyads, Copts under the
  • Frantz-Murphy, Gladys, Conversion in Early Islamic Egypt: The Economic Factor, in: Yusuf Ragib (ed.), Documents de l'Islam médiéval: Nouvelles perspectives de recherches, Cairo 1991, 11-17.
  • Herrin, Judith, Byzantium Confronted by Islam (from: The Formation of Christendom, Princeton 1987; at The Medieval Sourcebook): (20-09-05).
  • Little, Donald P., Coptic Converts to Islam During the Bahri Mamluk Period, in: Michael Gervers and Ramzi Jibran Bikhazi (eds.), Conversion and Continuity. Indigenous Christian Communities in Islamic Lands Eighth to Eighteenth Centuries, Toronto 1990, 263-288.
  • Rubenson, Samuel, Translating the Tradition: Some Remarks on the Arabization of the Patristic Heritage in Egypt. in: David Thomas (ed.), Second Woodbrooke-Mingana Symposium on Arab Christianity and Islam: "Coptic Arabic Christianity before the Ottomans: text and Context." Birmingham, 19-22 September 1994 = Medieval Encounters 2 (1996) [1-98, 175-227] 4-14.
  • Tagher, J., Christians in Muslim Egypt. A Historical Study of the Relations between Copts and Muslims from 640 to 1922. Arbeiten zum spätantiken und koptischen Ägypten 10, Altenberge 1988.
  • Wilfong, Terry, The non-Muslim Communities: Christian Communities, in: Carl F. Petry (ed.), The Cambridge History of Egypt Volume One: Islamic Egypt 640-1517, Cambridge 1998, 175-197.


  • Bagnall, Roger S. and Klaas A. Worp, Chronological Systems in Byzantine Egypt, Second Edition, Leiden 2004.

Cities and Villages

  • Alston, Richard, The City in Roman and Byzantine Egypt, London/New York 2002.
  • Alston, Richard and R. D. Alston, Urbanism and the Urban Community in Roman Egypt, Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 83 (1997), 199-216.
  • Bowman, Alan K., Urbanisation in Roman Egypt, in: E. Fentress (ed.), Romanization and the City. Creation, transformations, and failures. Proceedings of a Conference Held at the American Academy in Rome to Celebrate the 50th Anniversary of the Excavations at Cosa, 14-16 May 1998, Journal of Roman Studies Suppl. 38 (2000), 173-187.
  • Bowman, Alan K. and Dominic Rathbone, Cities and Administration in Roman Egypt, in: Journal of Roman Studies 82 (1992), 107-127.
  • Coptic Encyclopedia: Alexandria in Late Antiquity; Ashmunayn, Al-; Antinoopolis; Greek Towns in Egypt
  • Egberts, Arne, Brian P. Muhs and J. van der Vliet (eds.), Perspectives on Panopolis. An Egyptian Town from Alexander the Great to the Arab Conquest. Acts from an International Symposium Held in Leiden on 16, 17 and 18 December 1998. Papyrologica Lugduno-Batava 31, Leiden-Boston-Köln 2002.
  • Haas, Christopher, Alexandria in Late Antiquity: Topography and Social Conflict. Ancient Society and History, Baltimore 1997.
  • McKenzie, J. Glimpsing Alexandria from Archaeological Evidence, Journal of Roman Archaeology 106 (2003), 35-61.
  • Tkaczow, Barbara, Topography of Ancient Alexandria (An Archaeological Map). Travaux du Centre d'Archéologie Méditerranéenne de l'Académie Polonaise des Sciences vol 32 (1993), 1996.


  • Bagnall, Roger und Bruce W. Frier, The Demography of Roman Egypt. Cambridge Studies in Population, Economy and Society in Past Time 23, Cambridge 1994.
  • Scheidel, Walter, Death on the Nile. Disease and the Demography of Roman Egypt. Mnemosyne Supplements 228. Leiden 2001.


  • Biedenkopf-Ziehner, Anneliese, Kontinuität ägyptischer Ausbildung und Bildung in paganer und christlicher Zeit, Göttinger Miszellen 173 (1999), 21-48.
  • Cribiore, Raffaella, Writing, Teachers, and Students in Graeco-Roman Egypt. American Studies in Papyrology 36, Atlanta 1996.
  • Hasitzka, Monika, Neue Texte und Dokumentation zum Koptisch-Unterricht, 2 Bde. Mitteilungen aus der Papyrussammlung Erzherzog Rainer N.S. XVIII, Wien 1990.

Greek Papyrology

  • Bagnall, Roger S., Reading Papyri, Writing Ancient History, London and New York 1995.
  • Lewis, Naphtali, Papyrus in Classical Antiquity, Oxford 1974; Papyrus in Classical Antiquity - A Supplement, Bruxelles 1989.
  • Montevecchi, Orsolina, La Papirologia, 2nd. revised ed., Milano 1988.
  • Rupprecht, Hans-Albert, Kleine Einführung in die Papyruskunde, Darmstadt 1994.
  • Turner, Eric, Greek Papyri. An Introduction. 2nd edition Oxford 1980.

Historical Geography

  • Articles on most individual sites can be found in the Coptic Encyclopedia.
  • Timm, Stefan, Das christlich-koptische Ägypten in arabischer Zeit. 6 vols, (= TAVO Beiheft B 41,1-6) Wiesbaden 1984ff. (Alphabetical list of Christian sites in Egypt with indication of sources and bibliography).

Language and Writing

  • Coptic Encyclopedia: The entire 8th volume is dedicated to the Coptic language.
  • Crum, Walter E., Coptic Dictionary, Oxford 1939 (Reprint 1999) .
  • Emmel, Stephen, Coptic Language, The Anchor Bible Dictionary 4, New York 1992, 180-188.
  • Layton, Bentley, A Coptic Grammar. Porta Linguarum Orientalium N. S. 20, Wiesbaden 2000.
  • Loprieno, Antonio, Ancient Egyptian, A linguistic introduction. Cambridge 1995.
  • Loprieno, Antonio, Egyptian and Coptic, in: The Cambridge encyclopedia of the world's ancient languages, edited by Roger D. Woodard, Cambridge 2004, 160-217.
  • Peust, Carsten, Egyptian Phonology, Göttingen 1999.    
  • Polotsky, Hans Jacob, The Coptic Conjugation System, in: Orientalia 29 (1960), 392-422 (reprinted in Polotsky, H.J., Collected Papers, Jerusalem 1971).
  • Reintges, Chris, Coptic Egyptian (Sahidic Dialect). A Learner's Grammar. Afrikawissenschaftliche Lehrbücher 15, Köln 2004.
  • Ritner, Robert K., The Coptic Alphabet, in: Peter T. Daniels and William Bright (eds.), The World's Writing Systems, New York 1996. 287-90, 295-96.
  • Shisha-Halevy, Ariel, Coptic Grammatical Chrestomathy. A Course for Academic and Private Study. Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta 30, Leuven 1988.
  • Westendorf, Wolfhart, Koptisches Handwörterbuch, Heidelberg 1965-77.


  • Coptic Encyclopedia: Law, Coptic.
  • Gagos, Traianos, and Peter van Minnen, Settling a Dispute. Towards a Legal Anthropology of Late Antique Egypt. New Texts from Ancient Cultures 1, Ann Arbor 1994.
  • Steinwenter, A., Das Recht der koptischen Urkunden. Handbuch der Altertumswissenschaften X.4.2, München 1955.
  • Steinwenter, Arthur Studien zu den koptischen Rechtsurkunden aus Oberägypten. Studien zur Paläographie und Papyrusforschung XIX, Leipzig 1920.

Military History

  • Alston, Richard, Soldier and Society in Roman Egypt: A Social History, London and New York 1995.
  • Coptic Encyclopedia: Annona; Army, Roman.


  • Bagnall, Roger S., Egypt in Late Antiquity, Princeton 1993, 181-207.
  • Bagnall, Roger S., Women, Law, and Social Realities in Late Antiquity: A Review Article, Bulletin of the American Society of Papyrologists 32 (1995), 65-86.
  • Bagnall, Roger S., Church, State and Divorce in Late Roman Egypt in: Florilegium Columbianum. Essays in Honor of Paul Oskar Kristeller, New York 1987, 61-81.
  • Beaucamp, Joëlle, Le statut de la femme à Byzance (4e-7e siècle). II. Les pratiques sociales. Travaux et Mémoires du Centre de Recherche d'Histoire et Civilisation de Byzance Monographies 6, Paris 1992.
  • Krawiec, Rebecca, Shenoute & the Women of the White Monastery. Egyptian Monasticism in Late Antiquity, New York 2002.
  • Rowlandson, Jane (ed.), Women and Society in Greek & Roman Egypt. A Sourcebook, Cambridge 1998.
  • Wilfong, Terry G., Women of Jeme. Lives in a Coptic Town in Late Antique Egypt. New Texts from Ancient Cultures, Ann Arbor 2002.

Religious History


  • Boochs, Wolfgang (ed.), Geschichte und Geist der koptischen Kirche, Langwaden 2004.
  • Frankfurter, David, Religion in Roman Egypt, Princeton 1998.
  • Partrick, Theodore Hall, Traditional Egyptian Christianity: A History of the Coptic Orthodox Church, Greensboro 1996.

Church History

  • Camplani, Alberto (ed.), L'Egitto Cristiano. Aspetti e problemi in età tardo-antica (= Studia Ephemeridis Augustinianum 56), Rome 1997. (Various contributions on literature, Theology, ecclesiastical instistutions, archaeology, gnosticism)
  • Coptic Encyclopedia: Alexander I; Athanasius I; Benjamin I; Chalcedon, Council of; Clement of Alexandria; Constantinople, First Council of; Constantinople, Second Council of; Cyril I, Saint; Damian; Dionysius the Great; Dioscorus I; Ephesus, First Council of; Ephesus, Second Council of; Henoticon; Leo I the Great; Manichaeism; Monophysitism; Nestorius; Nicaea, Council of (325); Nubia, Evangelization of; Origen; Paganism and Christianity in Egypt; Peter I; Theophilos I; Timothy II (and many more)
  • Davis, Stephen J., The Early Coptic Papacy: The Egyptian Church and its Leadership in Late Antiquity, Cairo 2004
  • Gerhards, A. and H. Brakmann (eds.), Die koptische Kirche. Einführung in das ägyptische Christentum, Stuttgart-Berlin-Köln 1994.
  • Hubai, Peter, Über die Ursachen des Sieges des Christentums in Ägypten, Numen 48 (2001), 81-116.
  • Martin, Annick, Athanase d'Alexandrie et l'Église d'Égypte au IVe siècle (328-373). Collection de l'École Française de Rome 216, Paris 1996.
  • Meinardus, Otto F. A., Two Thousand Years of Coptic Christianity, Cairo 1999.
  • Müller, C. Detlef G., Grundzüge des christlich-islamischen Ägypten, Darmstadt 1969.
  • Winkler, Dietmar W., Koptische Kirche und Reichskirche. Altes Schisma und neuer Dialog, Innsbruck-Wien 1997.
  • Wipszycka, Ewa, Études sur le Christianisme dans l'Égypte de l'Antiquité tardive (= Studia Ephemeridis Augustinianum 52), Rom 1996 (Collection of important articles). 
  • Wipszycka, Ewa, Les ressources et les activités économiques des églises en Égypte du IVe au VIIIe siècle. Papyrologica Bruxellensia 10, Bruxelles 1972.


  • Coptic Encyclopedia: Manichaeism
  • Gardner, Iain, The Kephalaia of the Teacher. The Edited Coptic Manichaean Texts in Translation with Commentary, Leiden 1995.
  • Gardner, I.M.F. and S.N.C. Lieu, From Narmouthis (Medinet Madi) to Kellis (Ismant-el-Kharab): Manichaean documents from Roman Egypt, Journal of Roman Studies 86 (1996), 146-169.
  • Gardner, Iain and S.N.C. Lieu, Manichaean Texts from the Roman Empire, Cambridge 2004.
  • Johnson, D. W., Coptic Reactions to Gnosticism and Manichaeism, Le Muséon 100 (1987) 199-209.
  • Lieu, S.N.C., Manichaeism in the Later Roman Empire and Medieval China. Tübingen 1992
  • Mikkelsen, G.B., Bibliographia Manichaica. A Comprehensive Bibliography of Manichaeism through 1996. Corpus Fontium Manichaeorum, Subsidia I, Turnhout 1997.


  • Barnard, L. W., Athanasius and the Meletian Schism in Egypt, Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 59 (1973) 181-189.
  • Timbie, Janet, Melitius, in: Coptic Encyclopedia 5 (1991), 1585.


  • Articles on individual monasteries and monastic leaders can be found in the Coptic Encyclopedia.
  • Bacht, Heinrich, Das Vermächtnis des Ursprungs. Studien zum frühen Mönchtum, 2 vols. Würzburg 1983-4.
  • Bell, David N., Besa: The Life of Shenoute. Cistercian Studies Series 73. Kalamazoo 1983.
  • Brakke, David, Athanasius and the Politics of Asceticism. Oxford Early Christian Studies, Oxford 1995.
  • Burton-Christie, Douglas, The Word in the Desert. Scripture and the Quest for Holiness in Early Christian Monasticism, New York and Oxford 1993.
  • Emmel, Stephen, Shenoute's Literary Corpus, 2 vols., Corpus Scriptorum Christianorum Orientalium 599 and 600, Subsidia 111 and 112), Leuven 2004.
  • Goehring, James E., Ascetics, Society, and the Desert. Studies in Early Egyptian Monasticism. Studies in Antiquity and Christianity, Harrisburg 1999, 13-35.
  • Goehring, James E., The Letter of Ammon and Pachomian Monasticism. Patristische Texte und Studien 27, Berlin and New York 1986.
  • Gould, Graham, The Desert Fathers on Monastic Community. Oxford Early Christian Studies, Oxford 1993
  • Gregg, Robert C., Athanasius, the Life of Antony and the Letter to Marcellinus, New York etc. 1980.
  • Rousseau, Philip, Pachomius, The Making of a Community in Fourth-Century Egypt, Berkeley 1985.
  • Rubenson, Samuel, The Letters of St. Antony. Origenist Theology, Monastic Tradition and the Making of a Saint. BHEL 24, Lund 1990.
  • Veilleux, Armand, Pachomian Koinonia. 3 vols., Cistercian Studies Series 46-48. Kalamazoo 1981-1982.

Nag Hammadi Library & Gnosticism

  • Coptic Encyclopedia: Gnosticism; Nag Hammadi Library (and the entries on the individual treatises listed there)
  • Layton, Bentley, The Gnostic Scriptures, Garden City 1987.
  • Pearson, Birger A., Gnosticism and Christianity in Roman and Coptic Egypt. Studies in Antiquity and Christianity, New York and London 2004.
  • Robinson J. M. (ed.), The Nag Hammadi Library in English, 4th rev. edition, Leiden 1996.
  • Rudolph, Kurt, Gnosis. The Nature & History of Gnosticism, Edinburgh 1984 (paperback edition New York 1987).
  • Scholer, D. M., Nag Hammadi Bibliography 1970-1994. Nag Hammadi and Manichaean Studies 32, Leiden 1997 (continually brought up-to-date in the journal Novum Testamentum).

Coptic Literature


  • Emmel, Stephen, The Christian Book in Egypt. Innovation and the Coptic Tradition, in: John L. Sharpe III and Kimberly Van Kampen (eds.), The Bible as Book: The Manuscript Tradition, New Castle 1998, 35-43.
  • Orlandi, Tito, Literature, Coptic, in: Coptic Encyclopedia 5 (1991), 1450-60.
  • Orlandi, Tito, Coptic Literature, in: Birger A. Pearson and James E. Goehring, The Roots of Egyptian Christianity, Philadelphia 1986, 51-81.
  • Orlandi, Tito, Letteratura copta e cristianesimo nazionale egiziano, in: Alberto Camplani (ed.) L'Egitto Cristiano. Aspetti e problemi in età tardo-antica (Studia Ephemeridis Augustinianum 56), Rom 1997, 30-120.
  • Orlandi, Tito, Koptische Literatur, in: Martin Krause (ed.), Ägypten in spätantik-christlicher Zeit. Einführung in die koptische Kultur, Wiesbaden 1998, 117-147.
  • Orlandi, Tito, La patrologia copta, in: Antonio Quacquarelli (ed.), Complementi interdisciplinari di patrologia, Roma 1989, 457-502.
  • Smith, Mark. Coptic Literature, 337 - 425, in: Averil Cameron and Peter Garnsey (eds.), The Late Empire, A.D. 337 - 425. The Cambridge Ancient History vol. 13, Cambridge 1998, 720-735.
  • Wilfong, Terry G., Coptic Literature, in: The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt vol. 1, Oxford 2001, 295-302.


  • Metzger, Bruce M., New Testament, Coptic Versions of the, in: Coptic Encyclopedia 6 (1991), 1787-1789.
  • Metzger, Bruce M., The Early Versions of the New Testament: Their Origin, Transmission, and Limitations, Oxford 1977.
  • Nagel, Peter, Old Testament, Coptic Translations of, in: Coptic Encyclopedia 6 (1991), 1836-1840.
  • Peters, Melvin K. H., The Use of Coptic for Textual Criticism of the Septuagint, in: Natalio Fernández Marcos (Ed.), La Septuaginta en la investigacion contemporanea (V Congreso de la IOSCS). Textos y Estudios "Cardenal Cisneros" 34, Madrid 1985, 55-66.
  • Wisse, Frederik, The Coptic Versions of the New Testament, in: Bart D. Ehrman and Michael W. Holmes (Eds.), The Text of the New Testament in Contemporary Research. Essays on the Status Quaestionis. A Volume in Honor of Bruce M. Metzger, Grand Rapids 1995, 131-141.


  • Baumeister, Theofried, Martyr Invictus. Der Märtyrer als Sinnbild der Erlösung in der Legende und im Kult der frühen koptischen Kirche. Zur Kontinuität des ägyptischen Denkens. Forschungen zur Volkskunde 46, Münster 1972.
  • Delehaye, Hippolyte, Les martyrs d'Égypte, Analecta Bollandiana 40 (1922), 5-154; 299-364.
  • O'Leary, De Lacy, The Saints of Egypt, New York 1937 (Reprint Amsterdam 1974).
  • Orlandi, Tito, Hagiography, in: Coptic Encyclopedia 4 (1991), 1191-97.
  • Orlandi, Tito, I santi della chiesa copta, in: Corsi di cultura sull'arte ravennate e bizantina 28, Ravenna 1981, 205-223.
  • Schenkel, Wolfgang, Kultmythos und Märtyrerlegende. Zur Kontinuität des ägyptischen Denkens. Göttinger Orientforschungen IV/5, Wiesbaden 1977.
  • van den Berg-Onstwedder, Gonnie, Diocletian in the Coptic Tradition, Bulletin de la Société d'Archéologie Copte 29 (1990), 87-122.
  • Wilfong, Terry, Constantine in Coptic. Egyptian Constructions of Constantine the Great, in: Samuel N. C. Lieu and Dominic Montserrat (eds.), Constantine. History, historiography and legend, London and New York 1998, 177-188.

Magical Texts

  • Meyer, Marvin M. and Richard Smith (Eds.), Ancient Christian Magic. Coptic Texts of Ritual Power, San Francisco 1994.
  • Vycichl, Werner, Magic, in: Coptic Encyclopedia 5 (1991), 1499-1509.


  • Kolta, K. A., Medicine, Coptic, in: Coptic Encyclopedia 5 (1991), 1578-1588
  • Till, Walter C., Die Arzneikunde der Kopten, Berlin 1951.
See also above the Sections "Manichaeism", "Monasticism", and "Nag Hammadi and Gnosis"

Art and Archaeology


  • Badawy, Alexander, Coptic Art and Archaeology: The Art of Christian Egyptians from the Late Antique to the Middle Ages, Cambridge, Mass., 1978.
  • Bagnall, Roger S., Archaeological Work on Hellenistic and Roman Egypt, 1995-2000, American Journal of Archaeology 105 (2001), 227-243.
  • Bagnall, Roger S., Rathbone, Dominic W., Egypt From Alexander to the Copts - An Archaeological and Historical Guide, London: The British Museum Press 2004 (to be published).
  • Bailey, Donald M. (ed.), Archaeological Research in Roman Egypt. Proceedings of the Seventeenth Classical Colloquium of the Department of Greek and Roman Antiquities, British Museum, Held on 1-4 December, 1993, Journal of Roman Archaeology Suppl. vol. 19, 1993.

Art and Architecture

  • AA. VV., Architectural Elements of Churches, in: Coptic Encyclopedia 1 (1991), 194-226.
  • Ägypten. Schätze aus dem Wüstensand. Kunst und Kultur der Christen am Nil. Katalog zur Ausstellung herausgegeben vom Gustav-Lübcke-Museum der Stadt Hamm und dem Museum für Spätantike und Byzantinische Kunst, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin - Preußischer Kulturbesitz, Wiesbaden 1996.
  • L'art copte en Égypte. 2000 ans de christianisme. Exposition présentée à l'Institut du monde arabe, Paris, du 15 mai au 3 septembre 2000 et au musée de l'Éphèbe au Cap d'Agde du 30 septembre 2000 au 7 janvier 2001, Paris 2000.
  • Badawy, A., L'art copte. Les influences égyptiennes, Kairo 1948.
  • Coptic Art and Archaeology: The Art of the Christian Egyptians from the Late Antique to the Middle Ages, Cambridge 1978.
  • Du Bourguet, P., L'art copte, Paris 1968.
  • Effenberger, A., Koptische Kunst. Ägypten in spätantiker, byzantinischer und frühislamischer Zeit, Leipzig 1975.
  • Friedman, Florence D., Beyond the Pharaohs. Egypt and the Copts in the Second to Seventh Centuries A. D., Providence 1989.
  • Grossmann, Peter, Christliche Architektur in Ägypten. Handbuch der Orientalistik, Erste Abteilung: Der Nahe und Mittlere Osten Bd. 62, Leiden 2002.
  • Grossmann, Peter, Koptische Architektur, in: Martin Krause (Hg.), Ägypten in spätantik-christlicher Zeit. Einführung in die koptische Kultur. Sprachen und Kulturen des christlichen Orients 4, Wiesbaden 1998, 209-267.
  • Hunt, L. A., Coptic Art, in: Dictionary of the Middle Ages 3, New York 1983, 585-93.
  • Thomas, Thelma K., Late Antique Egyptian Funerary Sculpture, Princeton 1999.
  • Wessel, Klaus, Koptische Kunst. Die Spätantike in Ägypten, Recklinghausen 1963.