Department of Ancient History - Coptic Studies at MQ

Selected Bibliography of the Coptic Language

Compiled by Heike Behlmer

Thanks to Antonio Loprieno and Matthias Müller for providing assistance, information, and offprints.

This bibliography does not include research focussing exclusively on Coptic dialects. For this see the Coptic Dialects Bibliography. Some of the titles in the navigation of this page contains links. These links will lead to an explanation of the linguistic term (e.g. "Phonology").

Coptic Language in General

The 8th volume of the Coptic Encyclopedia is almost exclusively dedicated to Coptic language, with particular attention to Coptic dialects:

  • Atiya, Aziz, Coptic Encyclopedia, 8 vols, New York 1991.
  • Emmel, Stephen, Coptic, The Anchor Bible Dictionary 4, New York: Doubleday, 1992, 180-188.

Progress Reports

At the international congresses for Coptic Studies held every four years starting in 1976, progress reports are given on the different areas of the field. Linguistics is traditionally one of these areas.

  • Funk, Wolf-Peter, Coptic Linguistics, 1984-1988, in: M. Rassart-Debergh and J. Ries (eds.), Actes du IVe Congrès Copte, Louvain-la-Neuve, 5-10 sept. 1988, Publications de l'Institut Orientaliste de Louvain, 41, Louvain-la-Neuve: Institut Orientaliste, 1992, vol. 2, p. 53-63.
  • Layton, Bentley, Four Years of Progress in Coptic Linguistics, in: Tito Orlandi (ed.), Acts of the Fifth International Congress of Coptic Studies, Washington, Vol. 1, Reports on Recent Research, Roma: CIM 1993, 97-110.
  • Shisha-Halevy, Ariel, Coptic Linguistics: 1992-1996, in: Stephen Emmel et alii (eds.), Ägypten und Nubien in spätantiker und christlicher Zeit. Akten des 6. Internationalen Koptologenkongresses, Münster, 20.-26 .Juli 1996, Band 2 (= Sprachen und Kulturen des christlichen Orients, 6,2), Wiesbaden: Reichert 1999, 317-326.
  • Zakrzweska, Ewa D., A bibliography of Coptic linguistics and linguistic studies related to Coptic, 1996-2000, in: Mat Immerzeel and Jacques van der Vliet (eds.), Coptic Studies on the Threshold of a New Millennium. Proceedings of the Seventh International Congress of Coptic Studies Leiden, 27 August - 2 September 2000, Leuven: Peeters 2004, 27-38.


Introductory remarks on dictionaries

Coptic dictionaries traditionally only contain the part of the lexicon of the Coptic language derived from Ancient Egyptian. This is due to the fact that they were first compiled in an age in which every educated person was expected to read the classical languages fluently. Little attention was then given to the fact that the words of the Coptic language derived from Greek may have a meaning which differs considerably from the meaning the same words have in the Greek of a, let's say, Plato or Aristotle.

A noticeable part of the lexicon of Coptic (in some texts up to 20%) is made up of Greek words. Greek words are especially prominent among the religious terms used by Christians and adherents of faiths competing with Christianity (Gnosticism, Manichaeism) or among the terms used in the administrative, legal, and fiscal system of Egypt. The latter derives from the fact that Greek was used as an administrative language in Egypt from the conquest of the country by Alexander the Great in 332 BCE up to the early 8th century CE. In the Ptolemaic era, before the Roman conquest of Egypt in 31 BCE, it was partly used alongside Demotic (a cursive form of the hieroglyphs), which could be used (this was done mainly by Egyptians) for administrative documents. However, by the middle of the 1st century CE, Greek had become the only administrative language, since the new rulers, the Roman emperors, discouraged the use of Demotic. Coptic on the other hand, as a non-literary language (e.g. for letters), flowered first mainly in monastic circles. The end of the Roman (Byzantine) rule with the Arab conquest of Egypt in 641/2 opened up possibilities for the wider use of Coptic as an administrative language. So since for 600 years Greek was the language in which government and subjects communicated, it is no wonder that Coptic possesses so many so-called "loan" words from Greek. These words, unfortunately, because of the scholarly tradition in lexicography described above, are not contained in the "Coptic" dictionaries even though they should have been. For the purposes of this course you can use the glossary of Greek words provided in the textbook. More advanced students will learn to look them up in the Greek dictionaries listed below. Apart from the large dictionary by Liddell and Scott, for religious terms Bauer and Lampe may be fruitfully consulted, for administrative or military terms Sophocles is useful.


  • Cerný, Jaroslav, Coptic Etymological Dictionary, Cambridge 1976.
  • Crum, Walter E., Coptic Dictionary, Oxford 1939 (Reprint 1999) (The most comprehensive dictionary of the Coptic language, contains references, but no etymologies).
  • Kasser, Rodolphe, Compléments au dictionnaire copte de Crum. Bibliothèque d'études coptes, Cairo 1964.
  • Smith, Richard, A concise Coptic-English Lexicon, Grand Rapids 1983 (2nd edition Scholars' Press 1999) (emphasis on Biblical and Gnostic materials).
  • Spiegelberg, Wilhelm, Koptisches Handwörterbuch, Heidelberg 1912 (superseded by Westendorf).
  • Strasbach, M.-O. and B. Barc, Dictionnaire inversé du copte. Cahiers de la Bibliothèque Copte 2, Louvain, Peeters, 1984 (dictionary which inverts the order of words and letters, particularly useful for filling in lacunae when editing Coptic manuscripts professionally, no meanings given).
  • Westendorf, Wolfhart, Koptisches Handwörterbuch, Heidelberg 1965-77 (comprehensive Coptic-German dictionary, contains few references to original sources, but the large number of etymologies given make it particularly valuable for Egyptologists).


  • Bauer, W. A Greek-English lexicon of the New Testament and other early Christian literature: a translation and adaptation of the fourth revised and augmented edition of Walter Bauer's Griechisch-deutsches Wörterbuch zu den Schriften des Neuen Testaments und der übrigen urchristlichen Literatur, by William F. Arndt and F. Wilbur Gingrich; 2nd ed., rev. and augmented by F. Wilbur Gingrich and Frederick W. Danker from Walter Bauer's 5th ed., 1958, Chicago: University of Chicago Press 1979.
  • Förster, Hans, Wörterbuch der griechischen Wörter in den koptischen dokumentarischen Texten, Berlin-New York: De Gruyter 2002 (dictionary of all terms of Greek origin to be found in Coptic documentary sources, full references to the original sources, valuable, with some limitations, also for literary Coptic).
  • Lampe, G. W. H., A Patristic Greek Lexicon, Oxford: Oxford University Press 1961.
  • Liddell, H. G. und R. Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon. New (Ninth) Edition Completed 1940, with a Supplement 1968, Oxford, Oxford University Press 1976 (also available online at the Perseus Project ).
  • Sophocles, E. A., Greek Lexicon of the Roman and Byzantine Periods (From B.C. 146 to A.D. 1100), New York 1887 (various reprints; paperback edition 2004).

Grammars (Sahidic and Bohairic) and Chrestomathies

  • Eccles, Lance, Introductory Coptic Reader. Selection from the Gospel of Thomas with Full Grammatical Explanations, Kensington 1991.
  • Lambdin, Thomas O., Introduction to Sahidic Coptic, Macon: Mercer UP 1983 (2nd edition 1992).
  • Layton, Bentley, A Coptic Grammar. Porta Linguarum Orientalium N. S. 20, Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz 2000.
  • Layton, Bentley, Coptic Gnostic Chrestomathy. A Selection of Coptic Texts with Grammatical Analysis and Glossary, Leuven: Peeters 2004
  • Mallon, Alexis, Grammaire copte: bibliographie, chrestomathie et vocabulaire, 4 éd. revue par Michel Malinine, Beyrouth 1956.
  • Plisch, Uwe-Karsten, Einführung in die koptische Sprache (sahidischer Dialekt). Sprachen und Kulturen des Christlichen Orients 5. Wiesbaden: Reichert 1999.
  • Plumley, J.M., An Introductory Coptic Grammar (Sahidic Dialect), London: Home & Van Thal, 1948.
  • Polotsky, Hans Jacob, Grundlagen des koptischen Satzbaus, American Studies in Papyrology 28, 29, Decatur GA: Scholars Press, 2 vols., 1987, 1990.
  • Reintges, Chris, Coptic Egyptian (Sahidic Dialect). A Learner's Grammar. Afrikawissenschaftliche Lehrbücher 15, Köln: Rüdiger Köppe 2004.
  • Shisha-Halevy, Ariel, Coptic Grammatical Chrestomathy. A Course for Academic and Private Study. Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta 30, Leuven: Peeters 1988.
  • Shisha-Halevy, Ariel, Coptic Grammatical Categories. Structural Studies in the Syntax of Shenoutean Sahidic. Analecta Orientalia 53, Roma, Pontificium Institutum Biblicum, 1986.
  • Stern, Ludwig, Koptische Grammatik, Leipzig: T. O. Weigel 1880.
  • Till, Walter, Koptische Grammatik, Leipzig: Otto Harrassowitz 21961.
  • Till, Walter, Koptische Dialektgrammatik, München: C. H. Beck 21961.
  • Torallas Tovar, Sofía, Gramática de Copto Sahídico. Manuales y Anejos de "Emérita" 63, Madrid 2001.
  • Vergote, J., Grammaire Copte, 2 vols., vol. 1: Introduction, phonétique et phonologie, morphologie synthématique (structure des sémantèmes), vol. 2: Morphologie syntagmatique, Leuven 1973/1983.
  • Of interest may also be: Online Bibliography on the Egyptian language, including Coptic: Glyphs and Grammars Part II: Advanced Resources, compiled by Michael Tilgner and Aayko Eyma:

History of the Egyptian Language


  • Loprieno, Antonio, Ancient Egyptian and other Afroasiatic Languages, in: J. Sasson (ed.), Civilizations of The Ancient Near East. London: Scribners 1995, 2135-2150.
  • Loprieno, Antonio, Ancient Egyptian, A Linguistic Introduction, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 1995. (Online review by J. G. Manning in the Bryn Mawr Classical Review: )
  • Loprieno, Antonio, Egyptian and Coptic, in: Roger D. Woodard (ed.) The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the World's Ancient Languages, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004, Ch. 7.
  • Loprieno, Antonio, From Ancient Egyptian to Coptic, in: Martin Haspelmath et alii (eds.), Language Typology and Language Universals/ Sprachtypologie und sprachliche Universalien/ La Typologie des langues et les universaux linguistiques: An International Handbook/ Ein internationales Handbuch/ Manuel international, 1-2. Berlin: de Gruyter 2001, 1742-61.

Studies on detail problems

  • Borghouts, Joris, F., A New Approach to the Late Egyptian Conjunctive, in: Zeitschrift für Ägyptische Sprache und Altertumskunde 106 (1979), 14-24.
  • Borghouts, Jan F., Late Egyptian Precursors of Coptic 'genitival' nte -/ nta =, in: Studien zur Altägyptischen Kultur 8 (1980), 65-78.
  • Johnson, Janet H., The Coptic conditional particles ¿¿¿ and ¿¿¿ in Demotic, in: Journal of Near Eastern Studies 32 (1973), 167-169.

Development of Coptic and disappearance of Demotic

  • Depauw, Mark, A Companion to Demotic Studies, Bruxelles: Fondation Reine Elisabeth 1997.
  • Hodge, Carleton T., Coptic Double Consonants, in: Yoel Arbeitman and Allan R. Bomhard (eds.), Bono Homini Donum: Essays in Historical Linguistics in Memory of J. Alexander Kern, Amsterdam: Benjamins 1981, 659-664.
  • Lewis, Naphtali, The Demise of the Demotic Documents: When and Why, in: Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 79 (1993), 276-281.
  • Quaegebeur, Jan, Pre-Coptic, in: Coptic Encyclopedia 8 (1991), 188-190.
  • Quaegebeur, Jan, Pre-Old Coptic, in: Coptic Encyclopedia 8 (1991), 190-191.
  • Quaegebeur, Jan, De la préhistoire de l'écriture copte, in: Orientalia Lovaniensia Periodica 13 (1982), 125-136.
  • Ritner, Robert K., The Coptic Alphabet, in: Peter T. Daniels and William Bright (eds.), The World's Writing Systems, New York: Oxford UP 1996. 287-90, 295-96.
  • Satzinger, Helmut, Old Coptic, in: Coptic Encyclopedia 8 (1991), 169-175.
  • Satzinger, Helmut, Die altkoptischen Texte als Zeugnisse der Beziehung zwischen Ägyptern und Griechen, in: P. Nagel (ed.), Graeco-Coptica, Halle, Martin-Luther-Univers., 1984 = Wiss. Beiträge 48, 137-146.
  • Satzinger, Helmut, On the Prehistory of the Coptic Dialects, in: W. Godlewski (ed.), Coptic Studies. Acts of the Third International Congress of Coptic Studies, Warsaw, 20-25 Aug. 1984, Warszawa 1990, 413-416.
  • Satzinger, Helmut, On the Origin of the Sahidic Dialect, in: T. Orlandi and F. Wisse (eds.), Acts of the Second International Congress of Coptic Studies Roma 22-26 September 1980, Roma 1985, 307-312.

Loan words in Coptic

  • Funk, Wolf-Peter, Polis, Polites und Politeia im Koptischen. Zu einigen Fragen des einschlägigen koptischen Lehnwortschatzes, in: E.Ch. Welskopf (ed.), Das Fortleben altgriechischer sozialer Typenbegriffe in den Sprachen der Welt, 2. Teil, Berlin: Akademie-Verlag 1982, 283-320.
  • Hopfner, Theodor, Über Form und Gebrauch der griechischen Lehnwörter in der koptisch-sacidischen Apophthegmaversion. Kaiserliche Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien. Philosophisch-Historische Klasse 62/2, Wien 1917.
  • Horn, Jürgen, Latino-Coptica. Erwägungen zur den lateinischen Lehnwörtern des koptischen Wortschatzes, in: AA VV, Atti del XVII Congresso Internazionale di Papirologia, Napoli: Centro Internazionale per lo Studio dei Papiri Ercolanensi 1984, 1361-1376.
  • Kasser, Rodolphe, Vocabulary, Copto-Greek, in: Coptic Encyclopedia 8 (1991), 215-222.
  • Paryski, Marie, A Study of Greek Loan-Words in the Sahidic Bohairic Dialects of the Coptic Language, Ph.D. Diss. University of Michigan 1941.
  • Girgis, W. A., Greek loan words in Coptic I-V, in: Bulletin de la Société d'Archéologie Copte 17 (1964) 63-73; 18 (1966), 71-96; 19 (1970) 57-88; 20 (1971) 53-68; 21 (1975) 33-53.
  • Anba Gregorius, Greek Loan Words in Coptic. Greek Conjunctions in Coptic, in: Bulletin de la Société d'Archéologie Copte 30 (1991), 77-92.
  • (Anba) Gregorius, Greek Loan Words in Coptic, VI, in: Bulletin de la Société d'Archéologie Copte 23 (1976-8), 199-222.


  • Hintze, Fritz, Zur Koptischen Phonologie, in: Enchoria 10 (1980), 23-91.
  • Loprieno, Antonio, Egyptian and Coptic Phonology, in: Alan S. Kaye and Peter T. Daniels (eds.), Phonologies of Asia and Africa (Including the Caucasus), I-II, Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, 1997, 431-60.
  • Peust, Carsten, Egyptian Phonology, Göttingen: Peust & Gutschmidt Verlag 1999.
  • Satzinger, Helmut, Koptische Vokalphoneme und ägyptische Pluralformation, in: Stephen Emmel et alii (eds.), Ägypten und Nubien in spätantiker und christlicher Zeit. Akten des 6. Internationalen Koptologenkongresses, Münster, 20.-26. Juli 1996, Band 2, (= Sprachen und Kulturen des christlichen Orients, 6,2), Wiesbaden: Reichert 1999, 365-374.
  • Satzinger, Helmut, Phonologie des koptischen Verbs (Sa'idischer Dialekt), in: Manfred Görg and Edgar Pusch (eds.), Festschrift Elmar Edel, 12. März 1979. Ägypten und Altes Testament 1, Bamberg 1979, 343-389.
  • Till, Walter C. Betrachtungen zum Wortakzent im Koptischen, in: Bulletin de la Société d'Archéologie Copte 13 (1951), 13-22.
  • Worrell, William H., Syllabic consonants in Sahidic Coptic, in: Zeitschrift für Ägyptische Sprache und Altertumskunde 69 (1933), 130-131.
  • Worrell, William H., Coptic sounds. University of Michigan studies, humanistic series 26. Ann Arbor 1943



  • Callender, John B., Appositive Constructions in Sahidic, in: D.W. Young (ed), Studies Presented to H.J. Polotsky, Beacon Hill MS, Pirtle Polson, 1981, 68-79.
  • Depuydt, Leo, Possessivpronomina und Possessivausdrücke im Koptischen, in: Enchoria 13 (1985), 207-209.
  • Layton, Bentley, The Coptic Determinator Syntagm and Its Constituents, in: Journal of Coptic Studies 1 (1990), 79-97.
  • Polotsky, Hans Jacob, "Article" and "Determinative Pronoun" in Coptic, in: Lingua Aegyptia 1 (1991), 241-242.
  • Polotsky, Hans Jacob, Die koptischen Possessiva, in: Enchoria 13 (1985), 89-96.
  • Polotsky, Hans Jacob, Zur Determination in Koptischen, in: Orientalia 58 (1989), 464-472.
  • Shisha-Halevy, Ariel, What's In a Name? On Coptic (¿¿-) "(he) of-", in: Enchoria 13 (1985), 97-102.
  • Satzinger, Helmut, On the Definiteness of the Coptic Noun, in: M. Rassart-Debergh and J. Ries (eds.), Actes du IVe Congrès Copte, Louvain-la-Neuve, 5-10 sept. 1988, Publications de l'Institut Orientaliste de Louvain 41, Louvain-la-Neuve, Institut Orientaliste 1992. 2 vols., vol. 2, p. 74-81.
  • Shisha-Halevy, Ariel, The Proper Name: Structural Prolegomena to Its Syntax. A Case Study in Coptic, Beihefte zur Wiener Zeitschrift für die Kunde des Morgenlandes 15, Wien 1989.


  • Dembska, Albertyna, Remarks on the Origin of Coptic ¿ Suffix-pronoun 1st pers. sing. c., in: Bulletin de la Société d'Egyptologie de Genève 11 (1987), 27-36.
  • Elanskaya, Alla I., The ¿-Causative in Coptic, in: D. W. Young (ed.), Studies Presented to Hans Jakob Polotsky, Beacon Hill MS: Pirtle Polson, 1981, 80-130.
  • Emmel, Stephen, Proclitic Forms of the Verb 75 in Coptic, in: D. W. Young (ed.), Studies Presented to Hans Jakob Polotsky, Beacon Hill MS: Pirtle Polson 1981, 131-146
  • Funk, Wolf-Peter, Toward a Synchronic Morphology of Coptic, in: R. McL. Wilson, The Future of Coptic Studies, Leiden: Brill 1978, 104-24.
  • Green, Michael, The Coptic ¿¿¿¿ Pattern and its Ancient Egyptian Ancestors. A Reassessment of the Aorist Pattern in the Egyptian Language, Warminster: Aris & Phillips 1987.
  • Layton, Bentley, A Penultimate Personal Object Morph in Classical Sahidic Coptic, in: Stephen Emmel et alii (eds.), Ägypten und Nubien in spätantiker und christlicher Zeit. Akten des 6. Internationalen Koptologenkongresses, Münster, 20.-26.Juli 1996, Band 2 (= Sprachen und Kulturen des christlichen Orients, 6,2), Wiesbaden: Reichert 1999, 347-358.
  • Nagel, Peter, Die Determination des Subjektnomens im Präsens I und das Problem der Satztypen des Koptischen, in: Hallesche Beitrage zur Orientwissenschaft 2, (1980), 77-93.
  • Quecke, Hans, Zur Passivumschreibung im Koptischen, in: Jürgen Osing and Günter Dreyer (eds.), Form und Mass, Beiträge zur Literatur, Sprache und Kunst des alten Ägypten, Festschrift für Gerhard Fecht, Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1987, 395-404.
  • Reintges, Chris, Aspects of the morphosyntax of subjects and objects in Coptic Egyptian, in: Ton van der Wouden and Hans Broekhuis (eds.) Linguistics in the Netherlands 2001, Amsterdam 2001, 177-188.
  • Reintges, Chris, Second Tenses don't exist, in: M. Immerzeel & J. van der Vliet (eds.), Coptic studies on the threshold of a new millennium. Proceedings of the seventh International congress of Coptic studies, Leiden, 27 August-2 September 2000, Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta 133, Leuven: Peeters 2004, 131-144.
  • Shisha-Halevy, Ariel, Apodotic ¿¿¿¿¿¿: A hitherto unnoticed Late Coptic tripartite pattern conjugation form and its diachronic perspective, in: Le Muséon 86 (1973), 455-466.
  • Shisha-Halevy, Ariel, Protatic ¿¿¿¿¿¿: A hitherto unnoticed Coptic tripartite conjugation form and its diachronic connections, in: Orientalia 43 (1974), 369-381.
  • Young, Dwight W., The Coptic Tenses in the Writings of Shenoute, Ph.D. Diss. Dropsie College 1955.

Other categories

  • Layton, Bentley, Compound Prepositions in Sahidic Coptic, in: D.W. Young (ed), Studies Presented to H.J. Polotsky, Beacon Hill MS, Pirtle Polson, 1981, 239-268.



  • Reintges, Chris, Agreement marking, case assignment and the composition of the Coptic clause, in: Göttinger Miszellen 180 (2001), 97-102.
  • Reintges, Chris, Syntactic conditions on special inflection in Coptic Interrogatives, in: Jacqueline Lecarme (ed.), Research in Afroasiatic Grammar II. Papers from the fifth conference on Afroasiatic languages (Paris, June 2000), Current issues in linguistic theory 241, Amsterdam 2003, 363-408.
  • Shisha-Halevy, Ariel, Existential Statements in the Sahidic New Testament. Work Notes, in: Göttinger Miszellen 77 (1984), 67-79.
  • Shisha-Halevy, Ariel, Bohairic Narrative Grammar, in: Stephen Emmel et alii (eds.), Ägypten und Nubien in spätantiker und christlicher Zeit. Akten des 6. Internationalen Koptologenkongresses, Münster, 20.-26. Juli 1996, Band 2 (= Sprachen und Kulturen des christlichen Orients, 6,2), Wiesbaden: Reichert 1999, 375-389.
  • Till, Walter C., Die Satzarten im Koptischen, in: Mitteilungen des Instituts für Orientforschung 2 (1954), 378-402.

Nominal Sentences

  • Callender, John B., Studies in the Nominal Sentence in Egyptian and Coptic, Near Eastern Studies 24, Berkeley: University of California Publications 1985.
  • Depuydt, Leo, Specificity or Emphasis in Egyptian and Coptic Nominal Sentences?, in: Chronique d'Egypte 61 (1986), 358-367.
  • Depuydt, Leo, The Emphatic Nominal Sentence in Egyptian and Coptic, in: G. Englund, P. J. Frandsen (eds.), Crossroad. Chaos or the Beginning of a New Paradigm, Kobenhavn: C. Niebuhr Inst., 1986, 91-118.
  • Depuydt, Leo, The Emphatic Nominal Sentence in Egyptian and Coptic, in: Orientalia 56 (1987) 37-54
  • Funk, Wolf-Peter, Formen und Funktionen des interlokutiven Nominalsatzes in den koptischen Dialekten (I), Langues orientales anciennes - philologie et linguistique (LOAPL), 3 (1991), 1-75.
  • Schenkel, Wolfgang, "Spezifizität" - der Schlüssel zum ägyptisch-koptischen Nominalsatz?, in: Bibliotheca Orientalis 42 (1985), 255-265.
  • Shisha-Halevy, Ariel, Grammatical Discovery Procedure and the Egyptian-Coptic Nominal Sentence, in: Orientalia 56 (1987), 147-175.
  • Shisha-Halevy, Ariel, Notes on some Coptic nominal sentence patterns, in: Studien zur Sprache und Religion Ägyptens. Zu Ehren von Wolfhart Westendorf überreicht von seinen Freunden und Schülern, 2 vols., vol. 1: Sprache, Göttingen: Seminar für Ägyptologie und Koptologie 1984, 175-189.

Verbal System

  • Depuydt, Leo, A propos de la notion de mouvement en copte et en égyptien, in: Chronique d'Egypte 60 (1985), 85-95.
  • Depuydt, Leo, For the sake of ¿¿¿¿, 'love': an exception to the Stern-Jernstedt Rule and its History, in: Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 79 (1993), 282-286.
  • Funk, Wolf-Peter, Zur Syntax des koptischen Qualitativs, in: Zeitschrift für ägyptische Sprache und Altertumskunde 104 (1977), 25-39.
  • Green, Michael, The ¿¿¿¿ pattern in Coptic non-biblical texts, in: Zeitschrift für ägyptische Sprache und Altertumskunde 110 (1983), 132-143.
  • Jernstedt, Peter V., Zum Gebrauch des koptischen Qualitativs, in: Doklad Akademii Nauk SSSR 1925, 74-77.
  • Jernstedt, Peter V., Das koptische Präsens und die Anknüpfungsarten des näheren Objekts. Doklad Akademii Nauk SSSR 2 1927, 69-74.
  • Loprieno, Antonio, From VSO to SVO? Word Order and Rear Extraposition in Coptic, in: Rosanna Sornicola, Erich Poppe and Ariel Shisha-Halevy (eds.), Stability, Variation and Change of Word-Order Patterns over Time, Amsterdam: Benjamins 2000, 23-39.
  • Polotsky, Hans Jacob, The Coptic Conjugation System, in: Orientalia 29 (1960), 392-422 (reprinted in Polotsky, H.J., Collected Papers, Jerusalem: Magnes Press 1971).
  • Polotsky, Hans Jacob, Verbalaspekte im Koptischen, in: Göttinger Miszellen 88 (1985), 19-24.
  • Quecke, Hans, Zum substantivischen Relativsatz im Koptischen, in: T. Orlandi and F. Wisse (eds.), Acts of the Second Int. Congress of Coptic Studies, 261-281.
  • Reintges, Chris, A configurational approach to Coptic second tenses, in: Lingua Aegyptia 10 (2002), 343-388.
  • Reintges, Chris, Stem Allomorphy, Verb Movement and Case Assignment in Coptic Egyptian, in: Marcel den Dikken and Kees Hengeveld (eds.), Linguistics in the Netherlands 1995, Amsterdam: Benjamins 1995, 191-202.
  • Shisha-Halevy, Ariel, The "Tautological Infinitive" in Coptic: A Structural Examination, in: Journal of Coptic Studies 1 (1990), 99-127.
  • Shisha-Halevy, Ariel, Some Reflections on the Egyptian Conjunctive, in: Cäcilia Fluck et alii (eds.), Divitiae Aegypti. Koptologische und verwandte Studien zu Ehren von Martin Krause, Wiesbaden: Reichert 1995, 300-314.
  • Weima, J. A. D., The Second Tense in the Gospel of Thomas: The "Sleeping Beauty" of the Coptic Verbal System, in: Orientalia 59 (1990), 335-439.

Semantics and Pragmatics

  • Bosson, Nathalie, Expression de la comparaison en langue copte saidique, in: Faits de Langues: Revue de Linguistique 5 (1995), 109-22.
  • Bosson, Nathalie, De l'expression du rapport à l'objet en langue copte, in: Stephen Emmel et alii (eds.), Ägypten und Nubien in spätantiker und christlicher Zeit. Akten des 6. Internationalen Koptologenkongresses, Münster, 20.-26. Juli 1996, Band 2 (= Sprachen und Kulturen des christlichen Orients, 6,2), Wiesbaden: Reichert 1999, 327-334.
  • Dembska, Albertyna, A Note on the Meaning of the Coptic Verb ¿¿¿¿¿ 'Arise,' 'Rise', in: Rocznik Orientalistyczny 46 (1): 105-110.
  • Depuydt, Leo, The Meaning of the Coptic Particle ¿¿ and Related Constructions in Semitic and Other Languages, in: Journal of Coptic Studies 3 (2001), 113-128.
  • Depuydt, Leo, "Voir" et "regarder" en copte: etude synchronique et diachronique, in: Revue d'Egyptologie 36 (1985) 35-42.
  • Funk, Wolf-Peter, On a Semantic Typology of Conditional Sentences, in: Folia Linguistica 19 (1985), 365-413.
  • Quecke, Hans, Zur direkten und indirekten Rede im Koptischen, in: Journal of Coptic Studies 1 (1990), 129-35.
  • Reintges, Chris, Code-mixing strategies in Coptic Egyptian, in: Lingua Aegyptia 9 (2001), 193-237.
  • Young, Dwight W., On Shenoute's Use of Present I, in: Journal of Near Eastern Studies 20 (1961), 115-119.
  • Young, Dwight W., Unfulfilled Conditions in Shenoute's Dialect, in: Journal of the American Oriental Society 89 (1969), 399-407.
  • Young, Dwight W., ¿¿¿¿¿ and the Conditional Conjugation, in: Journal of Near Eastern Studies 21 (1962), 175-185.

Online Resources

Study Aids

On the home page of Dr Lance Eccles at Macquarie University, several valuable study aids for Coptic are available in pdf-format:

  • Outline of Sahidic Morphology
  • Outline of Bohairic Morphology
  • A Short Classified English-Coptic (Sahidic) Vocabulary and
  • The same vocabulary together with example sentences
  • Selections from the Life of Bishop Pisentius with English translation
  • Notes on Selections from Pisentius

Coptic Fonts

SP fonts home page

The SP Fonts Home Page (formerly the "Scholars Press") contains several TrueType fonts that may be downloaded and used free of charge. The alphabets available are Greek, Hebrew, Coptic, and Syriac. The site includes two Greek fonts: SPDoric and SPIonic. The Coptic font is named: SPAchmim

Alternatively, one can download the fonts from the website of the Society for Biblical Literature:

Coptic Unicode

A Unicode standard for Coptic has been defined in 2005. Font such as New Athena Unicode contain Unicode 4.1 Coptic. For other non-commercial Coptic fonts see the following pages (there may be others out there):