Certificate exempting from the dictation test (Acubar Deen)
Title: Certificate exempting from the dictation test issued to Akbar Deen
Date: created on 3/3/1908
Material: Ink on paper, photograph
Provenance: created in Melbourne, Vic, Australia
Description: This certificate was issued to Akbar Deen, a 53 year old Indian migrant, as permission to re-enter Australia within 3 years of departure. The document consists of applicant's information, two photographs, a proclamation from the customs officer and two stamps, one purple from the Port of Melbourne, the other blue from Victorian authorities. This type of document is the precursor to the modern passport.
Significance: This object illustrates the diverse ethnic communities which were established at the time of Federation. These communities would have been devastated by restrictive immigration and would have dwindled over the early 20th century.