Genes and proteins are not enough to explain the complexity of Biology. The cell adds complex sugar modifications onto the proteins and fats on its surface.
Professor Paulsen is a world leading scientist renowned for his work in microbial genomics, multidrug efflux pumps, lateral gene transfer, systems biology, bioinformatics and environmental microbiology.
It has traditionally been thought that almost all life on earth ultimately derives its energy from sunlight. However, deep below ground certain microbes can use chemicals to generate energy.