Department of Philosophy

Richard Menary

Richard MenaryBA (Hons) Ulster, MSc Birmingham, PhD King's College London

Richard read for a BA (Hons) in philosophy at the University of Ulster, an MSc in Cognitive Science at the University of Birmingham and then a PhD in philosophy at King's College London. He has taught philosophy at the University of Kent, Birkbeck College Faculty of Continuing Education and as a Senior Lecturer at the University of Hertfordshire and then as a Senior lecturer and head of the department of philosophy at the University of Wollongong.

Current research

Richard's Research interests include:

Philosophy of Mind: Consciousness, the self, mental representations
Philosophy of Cognitive Science: 4E cognition (embodied, embedded, extended, enacted), theory of mind, modularity, cognition and external representations, expertise.
Pragmatism: C.S. Peirce, John Dewey.
Virtue theory as it applies to both ethics and cognition/knowledge.

He can supervise Honours and PhD theses in these areas.

Over a number of years Richard has been developing a model of cognition called Cognitive Integration.

Integrated cognitive systems can be understood in the following way: cognition is the coordination of bodily processes of the organism with salient features of the environment, often created or maintained by the organism. A coordinated process allows the organism to perform cognitive tasks that it otherwise would be unable to; or allows it to perform tasks in a way that is distinctively different from and is an improvement upon the way that the organism performs those tasks via neural processes alone. Integrationists think that some cognitive processes turn out to be coordinated. There are several further features of integration that should not be ignored:

1. The coordination of brain, body and environment is governed by social and cultural practices (which are themselves normative phenomena). These are called cognitive practices.
2. Although we might focus on a single organism, many cases of cognitive integration will involve groups of cooperating organisms who share the same cognitive practices.
3. Integrationists are not committed to the view that artefacts and tools are themselves cognitive or mental, nor that a simple causal interaction between two states X and Y makes X part of Y (see Adams and Aizawa 2008).

The introduction to the book, which goes into more detail, can be found here: Introduction to Cognitive Integration

Externally Funded Research:

Richard is the lead investigator for the Australian Research Council 'Embodied Virtues and Expertise' Discovery project (2010-2013) awarded $293,000. The research team includes: Prof. Shaun Gallagher (Memphis), Prof. Daniel Hutto (Herts), Prof. Christopher Winch (King's London), Dr. David Simpson (UOW). Some information about the project can be found here: EVE

For copies of Richard's publications please go here:


  • The Extended Mind, (ed.) M.I.T. Press 2010 (paperback 2012)
  • Cognitive Integration: Mind and Cognition Unbounded, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan 2007 (paperback in press)
  • Radical Enactivism: Emotion, Intentionality and Phenomenology, (ed.) Consciousness and Emotion series, John Benjamins 2006
Journal Articles
  • Cognitive Integration, Enculturated Cognition and the Socially Extended Mind, Cognitive Systems Research in press
  • "Cognitive Transformation and Expertise" (with Michael Kirchhoff) Educational Philosophy and Theory in press
  • "Cognitive Practices and Cognitive Character" Philosophical Explorations 15:2 147-64 2012
  • "The Holy Grail of Cognitivism: A Reply to Adams and Aizawa" in Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences  9: 605-618 December 2010
  • "Dimensions of Mind" in Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 9: 561-578 December 2010
  • "Intentionality, Enactivism and the Extended Mind" in Topoi 28: 31-43 March 2009
  • "Embodied Narratives" in the Journal of Consciousness Studies, 15, no.6: 63-84 June 2008
  • "Writing as Thinking" in Language Sciences 29: 621-632 Sept. 2007
  • "Attacking The Bounds of Cognition" in Philosophical Psychology Vol. 19, No. 3: 329-344 June 2006
  • "Wittgenstein and Peirce on Doubt" in the Contributions of the ALWS, edited by Winfried Löffler & Paul Weingartner  Vol. 26, 230-233 August 2003
Editor of Special Journal Issues
  • Journal of Consciousness Studies: "The Dialectics of Consciousness and Language" 2008 (with Jordan Zlatev).
  • Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences: "4E Cognition: Embodied Embedded, Enacted, Extended" December 2010
Book Chapters
  • "The Enculturated Hand" in The Hand: An Organ of the Mind, Radman, Z. (ed.) Cambridge: MIT press in press
  • "The Extended Mind" in Sage Encyclopaedia of the Mind H Pasher (ed.) Sage in press
  • "Our Glassy Essence: Pragmatist Approaches to the Self" in The Oxford Handbook of the Self, Gallagher, S (Ed.) Oxford: OUP 2011
  • "The Extended Mind in Focus" in The Extended Mind, Menary, R. (ed.) Cambridge: MIT Press 2010
  • "Cognitive Integration and the Extended Mind" in The Extended Mind, Menary, R. (Ed.) Cambridge: MIT Press 2010
  • "Intentionality and Consciousness" in Encyclopaedia of Consciousness, Banks, W (ed.) Elsevier 2009
  • "The Virtuous Whisky Drinker" in Whiskey and Philosophy (ed.) Alhoff F. (ed.) Oxford: Blackwell 2009
  • "What is Radical Enactivism?" in Radical Enactivism: Emotion, Intentionality and Phenomenology Menary, R. (ed.) Consciousness and Emotion series, John Benjaminss 2006

Higher Degree Research (HDR) Supervision

Current students
Michael Kirchhoff: 3rd Wave Extended Mind Arguments
Richard Heersmink: Extension Theory and Artefacts

Contact details

Location: Building W6A Room 732
Phone: (61 2) 9850 6896
Fax: (61 2) 9850 8892