Centre for Policing, Intelligence and Counter Terrorism
Journal of Policing, Intelligence and Counter Terrorism
The Journal of Policing, Intelligence and Counter Terrorism (JPICT) is a refereed journal of the Centre for Policing, Intelligence and Counter Terrorism at Macquarie University, Sydney. The Journal is an international scholarly journal that acts as a forum for those around the world undertaking research and practice in the areas of:
- Security studies
- Counter terrorism
- Critical Incidents and political violence
- Terrorism and the media
- Reportage of war, insurgency and conflict
- Cyber-security and cyber-crime
- Threats to financial security
- Technology and security
The Journal offers national, regional and international perspectives on important areas of debate within these various fields, while addressing the practical and theoretical issues and considerations that surrounds them. It aims to balance the discussion of practical realities with debates and proposals about relevant and significant theoretical issues.
The Journal has the following major aims:
- to publish cutting-edge and contemporary articles, reports and reviews on relevant topics
- to act as an international forum for exchange and discussion
- to illustrate the nexus between theory and its practical applications and vice versa
- to provide material that acts as a stimulus for professional training and debate
Editorial Correspondence: Offers of articles are welcome and should be submitted to the Managing Editor, Dr. Julian Droogan, Centre for Policing, Intelligence and Counter Terrorism, Y3A, Macquarie University, Sydney, N.S.W, 2109, Australia. Fax: +61(0)298501440; email: email@example.com.
Submission Instructions: The Journal publishes full-length articles of approximately 6,000 words as well as relevant book reviews of between 800 and 1,500 words. The Journal also welcomes submissions providing analysis, commentary and debate on specific topics related to current practices and concepts in the areas covered by the Journal. Such contributions should be between 2,000 and 6,000 words. Responses to published articles in the form of letters or notes are also welcome.
For full submission instructions, subscription and all other information visit:www.informaworld.com/smpp/title~content=t930212267~db=all
- Associate Professor Colin Wastell, Macquarie University.
- Dr Julian Droogan, Macquarie University.
International Advisory Committee
- Dr Peter Bell - Queensland University of Technology
- Jason L Brown - National Security Director Thales Australia & New Zealand
- Professor Rohan Gunaratna - Nanyang Technical University, Singapore
- Associate Professor Geoffrey Hawker - Macquarie University
- Dr Victoria Herrington - Australian Institute of Police Management
- Professor Andrew Kakabadse, Cranfield School of Management, UK
- Professor Natalie Klein - Macquarie University
- Professor Arie Kruglanski - University of Maryland, USA
- Professor Elizabeth More - Australian Catholic University
- Adjunct Professor Graeme Morgan - Macquarie University
- Professor Tim Prenzler - Griffith University
- Associate Professor Kumar Ramakrishna - Nanyang Technical University, Singapore
- Professor Rick Sarre - University of South Australia
- Adjunct Professor Clive Williams, PICT, Macquarie University
- Dr Caroline Ziemke-Dickens - Institute for Defense Analyses, USA
Abstracts from latest volume of the Journal of Policing, Intelligence and Counter Terrorism (JPICT)
Understanding the 'Pak' in 'AfPak': The Obama Administration's Security Policy for Pakistan at the Mid-term - M.W. ASLAM
This article conducts an analysis of President Obama's security policy towards Pakistan during the first half of his current term in office. It identifies the rebalancing of civil-military relations, independent surveillance activities and predator strikes as key pillars of this security policy. This article examines the causes that led to the creation of this policy along with studying the efficacy of this approach in meeting Washington's objectives in Pakistan and the wider region that include, among others, conducting counterinsurgency and counterterrorism operations. Though it is a clear departure from the policy adopted by the Bush administration, the current approach has suffered major setbacks. These setbacks are likely to impact US-Pakistan relations during the second half of the Obama's current term.
The Impact of Policing British Muslims: A Qualitative Exploration - IMRAN AWAN
Since the 'war on terror', issues of security and the role of law enforcement agencies have become increasingly important. In the UK, local communities have had to play a pivotal role in combating extremism and terrorism. With this heightened atmosphere, community-led policing models are being used for counter-terrorism-led initiatives. Indeed, a local police force in Birmingham further exacerbated the potential for perceived bias between British Muslims and the police as they installed a number of secret covert and overt cameras in predominately Muslim areas. The paper examines issues in relation to racial profiling, surveillance, trust, community policing and counter-terrorism-led policing. The article uses a short case study which adopted a qualitative research approach and focused on participants from the area of Birmingham where the cameras were installed, as the author sought to understand the opinion of the study participants and their views on the CCTV cameras. Issues affecting this particular section of the community were critical in understanding how British Muslims had been affected by the use of such mass surveillance. The findings reported in this article suggest that surveillance initiatives based in Muslim areas of the West Midlands (in the UK) have failed.
Social Network Media and Political Activism: A Growing Challenge for Law Enforcement - PETER BELL & JACK NEWNHAM
The use of the Internet for political purposes is not new; however, the introduction of social media tools has opened new avenues for political activists. In an era where social media has been credited as playing a critical role in the success of revolutions (Earl & Kimport, 2011; Papic & Noonan, 2011; Wooley, Limperos & Beth, 2010), governments, law enforcement and intelligence agencies need to develop a deeper understanding of the broader capabilities of this emerging social and political environment. This can be achieved by increasing their online presence and through the application of proactive social media strategies to identify and manage potential threats. Analysis of current literature shows a gap in the research regarding the connection between the theoretical understanding and practical implications of social media when exploited by political activists, and the efficacy of existing strategies designed to manage this growing challenge. This paper explores these issues by looking specifically at the use of three popular social media tools: Facebook, Twitter and YouTube. Through the examination of recent political protests in Iran, the United Kingdom and Egypt from 2009-2011, these case studies and research in the use of the three social media tools by political groups, the authors discuss inherent weaknesses in online political movements and discuss strategies for law enforcement and intelligence agencies to monitor these activities.
The Miscellany of Militaristic Policing: A Literature Review - OSCAR RANTATALO
This article reviews how the subject of paramilitary policing and paramilitary police units (PPUs) has been addressed during the last ten years of criminal justice, criminological and policing research. In this paper, the term 'paramilitary policing' is discussed in relation to previous debates concerning militaristic policing and police militarisation. Drawing on these debates, articles from a number of journals addressing the phenomena are reviewed with the aim of answering how paramilitary policing has been studied, defined, and contextualised in recent research. The results show that no consensus or universal definition of what paramilitary policing is seems to exist, as studies denote the subject differently depending on applied theoretical and empirical perspectives. This article discusses the apparent differences and offers a conceptual scheme explaining the main intersections and different dimensions encompassed in the subject.
Radicalisation in Virtual Worlds: Second Life through the Eyes of an Avatar - JAMES A. COLE
This article explores ways in which virtual worlds like Second Life can be used to draw vulnerable individuals through the various stages of radicalisation. It examines the nature of radicalisation and outlines social, cultural, religious and psychological parameters that make some individuals more susceptible than others. The article uses a fictional avatar as the focal point for a journey through various destinations in Second Life. The objective is to present the reader with observational research on what such a journey might be like. The avatar visits a number of Second Life destinations. The content is examined in light of extremist viewpoints and the potential for radicalisation. This journey and the subsequent analysis demonstrate the enormous power inherent in these graphic three-dimensional sites to influence the way individuals think. It also underscores the urgent need for multi-disciplinary and multi-national counter-radicalisation strategies that respond to the challenges presented by virtual worlds.
Stuxnet: The Emergence of a New Cyber Weapon and its Implications - SEAN COLLINS AND STEPHEN MCCOMBIE
The malware Stuxnet was designed to sabotage the Iranian nuclear program by targeting Industrial Control Systems (ICS). The potential for cyber attacks to be a significant threat to critical infrastructure has been discussed over the last 15 years, but it was only in 2010 that this potential was finally realised with the advent of Stuxnet. Stuxnet, unlike the malware that came before it, is highly targeted and designed to achieve a real world outcome. Stuxnet has challenged assumptions about environments not connected to the Internet and the belief that network defences will protect facilities from vulnerabilities in software applications. This paper examines Stuxnet's forerunners, Stuxnet in detail, its target and its implication for critical infrastructure. Whatever the cost was to create Stuxnet, it was far less than the cost of a traditional military attack. Future versions of Stuxnet may be used by nation states, terrorist groups, hacktivists and cyber-criminals to achieve their own goals. In the future, cyber weapons may not be as restrained as Stuxnet was. This malware has started a new arms race and has created serious implications for the security of critical infrastructure worldwide.
Disclaimer: Views expressed in contributions to the Journal for Policing, Intelligence and Counter Terrorism do not necessarily reflect those of the Centre for Policing, Intelligence and Counter Terrorism. Any errors of fact are the responsibility of the authors.
The Journal for Policing, Intelligence and Counter Terrorism is published bi-annually in April and September.
ISSN 1833 5330