Showcase of Research 2016

Showcase of Research 2016

Research by Degrees1

Showcase of Research


Higher Degree Research Students of the Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University

Monday, Nov 14th 1:30pm-4:00pm

Level 1, Australian Hearing Hub, Macquarie University

Welcome to the 2016 Research by Degrees showcase held by the Department of Physics and Astronomy at Macquarie University.

2

This showcase gives all our higher degree research students the chance to share with their colleagues and guests, the exciting research accomplishments and discoveries that they have made during their time here at Macquarie University. Much of the time during such a degree is spent getting to, and forging ahead of, the cutting edge of human knowledge in a specific topic. This showcase gives one the opportunity to take a break and share the fascination and excitement we all experience in discovery driven research.

We hope your time in discussion with the poster presenters and viewing the posters will prove stimulating and enjoyable.

Best Regards,
Professor Jason Twamley
Departmental Director of Higher Degree Research

Judges

3Mr Hugh Ong, Technology Innovation, Commonwealth Bank of Australia

Hugh is from the Technology Innovation team at the Commonwealth Bank. This team is tasked with the discovery and driving adoption of emerging technologies into the Bank – those that over the next 5 years and beyond are likely to change how we interact with each other, businesses and communities. Some notable projects that have come from the team include experiments around Blockchain and IoT, as well as funding some of the quantum computing research at universities. Commonwealth Bank of Australia is one of Australia’s leading provider of integrated financial services, including retail, premium, business and institutional banking, funds management, superannuation, insurance, investment and share-broking products and services.

Prof Fred Watson, Astronomer-in-Charge, AAO4

Professor Fred Watson has been an astronomer at the Australian Astronomical Observatory since 1995. He is a graduate of the Universities of Edinburgh and St Andrews, and today holds adjunct positions at several Australian universities, including Macquarie. Fred is best known for his radio and TV broadcasts, talks, and other outreach programs, which earned him the 2006 Australian Government Eureka Prize for Promoting Understanding of Science. He has also written a number of award-winning books, and was made a Member of the Order of Australia in 2010. Fred has an asteroid named after him (5691 Fredwatson), but says that if it hits the Earth, it won’t be his fault.
The Australian Astronomical Observatory (AAO) is Australia's national optical astronomy facility. It operates the 3.9-metre Anglo-Australian Telescope (the largest in the country) and the 1.2-metre UK Schmidt Telescope at Siding Spring in north-western NSW. These world-class instruments enable Australian and overseas astronomers to do excellent science. The AAO is also a world leader in astronomical research and the development of innovative telescope instrumentation, and takes a leading role in the formulation of long-term plans for astronomy in Australia.

5Mr Steve Frisken, Chief Technology Officer (consultant), Finisar Corporation; Founder and CEO, Cylite Pty Ltd

Steve holds a PhD from UNSW in theoretical physics and is a serial technology entrepreneur and inventor. He has founded several successful start-ups in optical communications and medical imaging and holds over 25 granted US patents. He is most recognised for his invention of the Dynamic Wavelength Processor, which was commercialised by Engana and later acquired by Finisar Corp. These products have helped to shape the evolution of Flexible Grid optical WDM optical transport networks.
Finisar is now a leading global supplier of Wavelength Selective Switches and has its Australian R&D and Production facilities in Rosebery, NSW.
His recent venture Cylite is developing a Hyper-parallel Optical Coherence Tomography imaging and metrology platform with initial applications in the Ophthalmology. Cylite is a start-up based in Clayton Victoria.

Dr Stephen Thompson, Product Application and Support, Lecia Microsystems Pty Ltd6

Dr Stephen Thompson, D. Phil. (Oxford Biochemistry -Molecular signalling mechanisms and chemotaxis). Stephen has broad experience in microscopy imaging techniques and peripheral equipment. Stephen has spent a busy 2 Years with Leica-Microsystems in Sydney as applications specialist for confocal systems and super resolution techniques.

Leica Microsystems is a world leader in providing innovative microscopy, camera and software solutions for imaging and analysis of macro-, micro- and nanostructures.

List of Posters


1. Frequency tunable THz laser sources for real-world applications - Tiago Almeida Ortega, David J. Spence, Helen M. Pask and Andrew J. Lee


2. High-power mid-IR femtosecond fiber laser in the water vapor transmission window - Sergei Antipov, Darren D. Hudson, Stuart D. Jackson and Alex Fuerbach

3. Physics of braided non-Abelian anyons - Babatunde M. Ayeni, Robert N. C. Pfeifer and Gavin K. Brennen

4. Beam quality enhancement of continuous-wave external cavity diamond Raman laser - Zhenxu Bai, Robert J. Williams, Soumya Sarang and Richard P. Mildren

5. Early-Type Galaxy Stellar Populations in the Near-Infrared - Christina Baldwin, Richard McDermid and Harald Kuntschner

6. Nanostructuring of diamond via two photon UV etching at sub-ablation fluences - Christopher Baldwin, James Downes and Rich Mildren

7. Investigating the impact of group environment on galaxy properties - Stefania Barsanti, Matthew Owers and Sarah Brough

8. Avoiding Raman noise in correlated photon sources - Daniel R. Blay, L. G. Helt and M. J. Steel

9. Quantum control of photonic entanglement with a single sub-wavelength structure - Alexander Büse, Mathieu L. Juan, Nora Tischler, Vincenzo D'Ambrosio, Fabio Sciarrino, Lorenzo Marrucci and Gabriel Molina-Terriza

10. Scalable, Reconfigurable 3D Laser-written Circuits - Z. J. Chaboyer, A. Stokes, James Downes, M. J. Steel and Michael J. Withford

11. Light-responsive liposomes enhances endosomal escape and gene interference - Wenjie Chen, Wei Deng and Ewa M Goldys

12. X-ray induced singlet oxygen generation by nanoparticle-photosensitizer conjugates: direct determination of singlet oxygen quantum yield - Sandhya Clement, Elizabeth Camilleri, Wei Deng and Ewa M. Goldys

13. The evolutionary impact of supermassive black holes on their host galaxies - Michael Cowley, Lee Spiter and ZFOURGE Team

14. Major Cluster Mergers as Drivers of Galaxy Transformation and Evolution - Tiffany E. Day and Matt S. Owers

15. Water temperature measurement using blue laser excitation and a 2-channel Raman spectrometer
- Andrea de Lima Ribeiro, Christopher Artlett and Helen Pask

16. Rapid Prototyping of Arrayed Waveguide Gratings - G. Douglass, F. Dreisow, S. Gross, S. Nolte and M. J. Withford

17. Effect of pulse parameters on infrared nerve stimulation in vitro - Blake Entwisle, Simon Gross, Mark Connor and Michael Withford

18. Project PANOPTES: a citizen-scientist exoplanet transit survey using commercial digital cameras - Wilfred T Gee, Olivier Guyon, Josh Walawander, Nemanja Jovanovic and Luc Boucher

19. Steeply Rising Star Formation Radial Profiles as a marker of Inside-out Quenching in Starforming SAMI Galaxies - G Goldstein, R McDermid, M Owers and SAMI Team

20. Quantum Measurements as a resource - Thomas Guff and Alexei Gilchrist

21. Putting nanomaterials into the tissue and body context - Anna Guller, Inga Kuschnerus, Zahra Khabir, Annemarie Nadort, Alla Generalova, Elena Petersen, Anatoly Shekhter, Ewa Goldys, Yi Qian and Andrei Zvyagin

22. Using hyperspectral imaging as a medical diagnostic tool - Abbas Habibalahi, Ayad Anwer and Ewa Goldys

23. Distinguish NADH/NADPH changes caused by oxidative stress using Hyperspectral Imaging - Meng He, Aziz Rehman, Ayad Anwer, Martin Gosnell, Guozhen Liu and Ewa Goldys

24. Is bigger better? The common envelope interaction as a function of the envelope mass - Roberto Iaconi, Orsola De Marco and Jean-Claude Passy

25. Non-imaging Optics of Multi-LED light source for Hyperspectral Imaging - Kashif Islam, Martin E. Gosnell, Martin Ploschner, Ayad Anwar and Ewa Goldys

26. Novel saturable absorbers for mode-locked Tm:ZBLAN waveguide chip lasers - Xiantao Jiang, Simon Gross, Han Zhang, Zhinan Guo, Fabian Rotermund, Dong-Il Yeom, Michael J. Withford and Alexander Fuerbach

27. The comparative study of singlet oxygen generation efficiency of Rose Bengal, Gold nanoparticles, and Gold-Rose Bengal conjugate in photodynamic therapy - Manoj B. Kale, Sandhya Clement and Ewa M. Goldys

28. Visualization and quantification of photoluminescent nanoparticles penetration in human skin - Zahra Khabir, Amy Holmes, Vlada Rozova, Liuen Liang, Xiaoxue Xu, Honghua Hu, Michael S. Roberts and Andrei V. Zvyagin

29. The SUNBIRD project: Uncovering supernovae in luminous infrared galaxies - E. C. Kool, S. D. Ryder, E. Kankare and S. Mattila

30. In Search of Lost Shocks - Andrew Lehmann, Christoph Federrath and Mark Wardle

31. Three-dimensional Controlled Growth of Rare-earth doped heterogeneous nanocrystals - Deming Liu, Xiaoxue Xu, Yi Du, Xian Qin, Chenshuo Ma, Yuhai Zhang, Ewa M. Goldys, James A. Piper, Shixue Dou, Xiaogang Liu and Dayong Jin

32. Label-free functional characterization of “stem cell – cartilage” system by hyperspectral imaging (with unsupervised unmixing) for applications in regenerative medicine - Saabah B. Mahbub, Peter Succar, Martin E. Gosnell, Ayad G. Anwer, M Medynskyj, Ben Herbert, Graham Vessey and Ewa M. Goldys

33. Can we predict laser behaviour? - T. Malica, J.P. Toomey, K. A. Shore and D.M. Kane

34. Superradiance from nitrogen-vacancy centres in nanodiamonds - Rochelle Martin, Ben Baragiola, Mattias Johnsson, Thomas Volz and Gavin Brennen

35. Extratidal stars and mass loss rates from the globular clusters NGC 1851, M3 and M13 - Colin Navin, Sarah Martell, Jeffrey Simpson and Daniel Zucker

36. Does adiabatic transfer work for digital spatially coupled waveguides? - Vincent Ng, Jesse A. Vaitkus, Zachary J. Chaboyer, Thach Nguyen, Judith M. Dawes, Michael J. Withford, Michael J. Steel and Andrew D. Greentree

37. Shining Light on the Dark Milky Way: Probing our Galaxy’s Hidden Gas - Van Hiep Nguyen and Joanne Dawson

38. Hydroxyl as a Probe of our Galaxy's Missing Gas - Anita Petzler, Joanne Dawson and Cormac Purcell

39. Towards Bioconjugation of Nanoruby with Streptavidin - Rashmi Pillai, Varun Sreenivasan, Mark Connor and Andrei Zvyagin

40. The Distribution of Mass in Early-Type Galaxies - Adriano Poci, Michele Cappellari and Richard McDermid

41. Revealing the Dark Universe using the next generation of continuum radio surveys - Glen Rees, Lee Spitler and the EMU Cosmology Team

42. Fluorescence quenching of free and bound NADH in HeLa cells determined by hyperspectral imaging and unmixing of cell autofluorescence - Aziz ul Rehman, Ayad G. Anwer, Martin E. Gosnell, Saabah B. Mahbub, Guozhen Liu and Ewa M. Goldys

43. Using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics to Model the Common Envelope - Thomas Reichardt, Orsola De Marco and Daniel Price

44. Optical Levitation of Nanodiamonds Containing Colour Centres for Enhanced Optical Forces - Reece P. Roberts, Mathieu Juan, Thomas Volz and Gabriel Molina-Terriza

45. Novel approaches for microscopy and spectroscopy of spider silks - Maria Samokhina, Deb Kane, Doug Little, Nicole Vella, Paul Guagliardo and David McPhail

46. High power single-longitudinal mode diamond Raman laser at 1240 nm - Soumya Sarang, Oliver Lux, Ondrej Kitzler, Robert Williams, Aaron McKay and Rich P. Mildren

47. The Effect of Non-Ideal Magnetohydrodynamics on Disc winds from Protoplanetary Discs - J Tocknell and M Wardle

48. Observation of Room-Temperature Spontaneous Superradiance from Single Diamond Nanocrystals
- C. Bradac, M. Johnsson, M. van Breugel, B. Besga, B. Baragiola, R. Martin, M. L. Juan, G. Molina-Terriza, G. Brennen and T. Volz

49. A homogenous distance catalogue for Galactic Post-AGB objects - S.B. Vickers, D.J. Frew, M.S. Owers, Q.A. Parker and I.S. Bojicic

50. Folate-mediated fluorescence imaging probe based on PEGylated polystyrene nanoparticles for targeted cancer diagnosis - Fei Wang, Nicole Cordina and Ewa Goldys

51. A simple smartphone based device towards biomedical colorimetric and fluorescent signal detection - Piotr Wargocki, Guozhen Liu, Ayad Anwer, Wei Deng, Montarop Yamabhai and Ewa M. Goldys

52. Probing Beneath the Surface: A Study of Ancient Egyptian Faience - Michelle F. Whitford, Robert Jones, Robert M. T. Madiona, Nicholas Welch, Paul Pigram, Karl Van Dyke, Yann Tristant and Michael J. Withford

53. Compact integrated actively Q-switched waveguide chip laser - Christoph Wieschendorf, Josiah Firth, Leonardo Silvestri, Simon Gross, Francois Ladouceur, David Spence, Michael Withford and Alex Fuerbach

54. Semi-integrated Fibre Cavities for Microcavity Polaritons and Beyond - A. Wood, X. Vidal, Sarath R, B. Besga and T. Volz

55. Nanoparticle-labelled ELISA assay on the cell surface for probing cytokine secretion with live cells - Guozhen Liu, Kaixin Zhang, Ayad G. Anwer and Ewa M. Goldys

56. Development of time-gated Luminescence bio-imaging instruments - Xianlin Zheng, Yiqing Lu, Dayong Jin and James A. Piper

57. Linewidth narrowing and laser properties in continuous-wave intracavity terahertz lasers - Yameng Zheng, Andrew J. Lee, David J. Spence and Helen M. Pask

Abstracts 1 - 16

Frequency tunable THz laser sources for real-world applications
Tiago Almeida Ortega, David J. Spence, Helen M. Pask and Andrew J. Lee
Affiliation list: MQ Photonics Research Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University NSW 2109, Australia
Abstract: Terahertz radiation interacts with molecular and vibrational modes of many substances, and penetrates well in non-polar and non-metallic materials such as cardboard, paper, textile and plastics. For this reason, frequency-tunable terahertz sources could address real world applications in important fields such as life sciences, homeland security and non-destructive testing for various industry sectors. However, there is a lack of practical sources at such frequencies, and the main objective of this project is to deliver a viable technology that will significantly extend the current reach of SPS lasers (~0.5 – 3.5THz) out to 10THz, and demonstrate real-world applications.

High-power mid-IR femtosecond fiber laser in the water vapor transmission window
Sergei Antipov, Darren D. Hudson, Stuart D. Jackson and Alex Fuerbach
Affiliation list: Centre for Ultrahigh Bandwidth Devices for Optical Systems (CUDOS), MQ Photonics Research Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia
Abstract: The recent demonstrations of ultrafast mid-infrared fiber lasers emitting sub-ps pulses at 2.8μm have created an exciting potential for a range of applications including mid-infrared frequency combs and materials processing. So far, this new class of laser has been based on a transition in erbium doped fluoride fibres that lies directly in a region of high water-vapor absorption. This absorption has limited the achievable bandwidth, pulse duration, and peak power and poses a serious problem for transmission in free-space. Here, we present an ultrafast mid-infrared fiber laser which overcomes these limitations by using holmium as the gain medium, allowing the central emission wavelength to shift to nearly 2.9μm and avoid the strong water vapor lines. This laser, which represents the longest wavelength mode-locked fiber laser, emits 7.6nJ pulses at 180 fs duration, with a record peak power of 37kW. At this power level, the laser surpasses many commercial free-space OPA systems and becomes attractive for laser surgery of human tissue, industrial materials modification and for driving broadband coherent supercontinuum in the mid-infrared.

Physics of braided non-Abelian anyons
Babatunde M. Ayeni[1], Robert N. C. Pfeifer[2] and Gavin K. Brennen[1]
Affiliation list: 1. Centre for Engineered Quantum Systems, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University, NSW 2109, Australia. 2. Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109, Australia.
Abstract: Particles in our world are either bosons or fermions. Fermions make up all the materials we use, e.g. the components of our electronics. Bosons on the other hand are the particles that mediate forces between matter, e.g. the recently discovered Higgs boson.
However, there exist new possibilities in two dimensions. Materials like extremely thin semiconductors can support the existence of particles called anyons. If a pair of bosons (fermions) are exchanged, the wave function picks up a phase of +1 (-1), but an exchanged pair of anyons picks up a complex phase factor, or even a unitary matrix if the ground state constitute a degenerate manifold. Among other uses, anyons can be used to build a (quantum) computer, with exchanging (or “braiding”) them as the only operation necessary.
In this work, we studied the effect that braiding has on the ground state of a collective of interacting and itinerant anyons. We found out that the physics varies with different anyon model, with each having different ground state properties, different conformal field theories, and different types of particle excitations.

Beam quality enhancement of continuous-wave external cavity diamond Raman laser
Zhenxu Bai, Robert J. Williams, Soumya Sarang and Richard P. Mildren
Affiliation list: MQ Photonics Research Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University, NSW 2109, Australia
Abstract: The combination of high power-handling capability and the Raman beam cleanup effect indicate diamond Raman lasers have the potential to provide CW brightness enhancement of very high-power lasers with moderate beam quality. Here, we present a diamond Raman laser providing CW wavelength conversion from 1064 nm to 1240 nm with beam quality enhancement. A substantial improvement in beam quality was obtained, from an M2 = 2.4 pump beam to an M2 = 1.2 Stokes beam. The laser produced up to 50 W Stokes output (pump limited) with a linear slope efficiency of 51%. Potential for higher conversion efficiency and brightness enhancement will be discussed, as well as suitability for pump beams of further-reduced brightness.

Early-Type Galaxy Stellar Populations in the Near-Infrared
Christina Baldwin[1], Richard McDermid[1,2] and Harald Kuntschner[3]
Affiliation list: 1. Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109, Australia; 2. Australian Gemini Office, Australian Astronomical Observatory, PO Box 915, Sydney, NSW 1670, Australia; 3. European Southern Observatory (ESO), Karl-Schwarzschild-Strass e 2, D-85748 Garching, Germany
Abstract: The near-infrared is a little-studied, but information-rich regime for understanding the stellar content of galaxies. It contains tracers of important but poorly understood phases of stellar evolution, such as the Thermally Pulsating Asymptotic Giant Branch phase, as well as tracing the faint low-mass stars that, by number and combined mass, dominate the stellar populations of galaxies. However, current stellar population synthesis models, which are used to derive galaxy properties, make conflicting predictions in this wavelength range. We have obtained high quality near-infrared spectroscopy using the GNIRS spectrograph on Gemini North to study a subset of galaxies from the ATLAS3D Survey, with the aim of characterising their near-infrared properties. We examine the impact of model choice on the recovered star formation history of these galaxies, and compare the derived properties with those measured at optical wavelengths. We find that all model sets are able to give good fits to the data, however the recovered star formation histories differ significantly, and none correlate with star formation histories determined using optical spectroscopy. Preliminary work fitting optical and near-infrared wavelengths simultaneously indicates that this approach may provide better constraints on galaxy properties than the use of near-infrared alone.

Nanostructuring of diamond via two photon UV etching at sub-ablation fluences
Christopher Baldwin, James Downes and Rich Mildren
Affiliation list: MQ Photonics Research Centre, Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia
Abstract: Etching of diamond by two photon UV desorption is a relatively new technique which allows direct write laser structuring of diamond surfaces on the nano-scale. Pulsed UV irradiation of diamond surfaces in air at sub-ablation pulse fluences has been found to result in the slow removal of surface carbon atoms at rates < 1 pm/pulse. The process was found to be a thresholdless, non-thermal, highly localised, two photon effect which leaves the surface oxygen terminated and free from graphite. This process appears to be unique to diamond, and is not yet fully understood.
The goal of my research is to experimentally explore the nature of the etching mechanism, in order to reveal the new physical processes involved, and develop UV etching of diamond as a useful nanoengineering tool.

Investigating the impact of group environment on galaxy properties
Stefania Barsanti[1], Matthew Owers[1,2] and Sarah Brough[2,3]
Affiliation list: 1. Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University, NSW 2109, Australia; 2. Australian Astronomical Observatory (AAO), PO Box 915, North Ryde, NSW 1670, Australia; 3. CAASTRO: ARC Centre of Excellence for All-sky Astrophysics
Abstract: The properties of galaxies, such as their shape and the rate at which they form new generations of stars, correlate strongly with the galaxy number density in the surrounding Universe. In particular, a morphology-galaxy density relationship has been observed, in the sense that elliptical galaxies with no ongoing star formation are more common in massive clusters where the galaxy number density is high. Conversely, in low density regions the galaxy population is dominated by disc-like spiral galaxies which are currently forming new stars. Moreover, there is evidence of a star formation rate (SFR)-galaxy density relationship, in the sense that galaxies in dense environments show a suppression of the star formation activity with respect to field galaxies. Over the past few decades, much effort has been devoted to understanding the underlying physics driving this suppression, or quenching, of star formation in cluster galaxies. No single dominant mechanism has been identified to date and the situation is less clear for galaxies in groups.

Avoiding Raman noise in correlated photon sources
Daniel R. Blay, L. G. Helt and M. J. Steel
Affiliation list: Macquarie University Quantum Research Centre in Science and Technology (QSciTech) and Centre for Ultrahigh bandwidth Devices for Optical Systems (CUDOS), MQ Photonics Research Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University, North Ryde, NSW 2109, Australia.
Abstract: Sources of single photons are a critical resource for many quantum optical experiments. These photons are often generated by shining a bright pump laser onto a material with a nonlinear polarisation response, emitting photons at a new frequency. When photon sources are based in amorphous materials, such as optical fibre and glass chips, light from the pump laser can scatter off of vibrations in the material over a broad frequency range. We propose a new scheme with two pump lasers that avoids this strong source of noise. We derive a general expression that describes this process, the rate of photon generation and the correlations between photons. In an appropriately designed optical fibre, we can produce enough photons per pulse for a viable photon source but with significant suppression of the Raman noise.

Quantum control of photonic entanglement with a single sub-wavelength structure
Alexander Büse[1,2], Mathieu L. Juan[1,2], Nora Tischler[1,2], Vincenzo D'Ambrosio[3], Fabio Sciarrino[3], Lorenzo Marrucci[3] and Gabriel Molina-Terriza[1,2]Affiliation list: 1. Department of Physics & Astronomy, Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia; 2. ARC Centre for Engineered Quantum Systems, Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia; 3. Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Università di Roma, Roma, Italy; 4. Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Napoli Federico II, Napoli, Italy
Abstract: Quantum entanglement is the basic resource of all quantum information schemes. A fundamental problem of using photonic states as carriers of quantum information is that they interact weakly with matter and that the interaction volume is typically limited by the wavelength of light. The use of metallic structures in quantum plasmonics has the potential to alleviate these problems. Here, we present the first results showing that a single subwavelength plasmonic nanoaperture can controllably modify the quantum state of light. In particular, we experimentally demonstrate that two-photon entanglement can be either completely preserved or completely lost after the interaction with the nanoaperture solely depending on the quantum phases between the quantum states. We achieve this effect by using a specially engineered two photon state to match the properties of the nanoaperture. The effect is fundamentally mediated by quantum interference which occurs at scales smaller than the wavelength of light.

Scalable, Reconfigurable 3D Laser-written Circuits
Z. J. Chaboyer[1,2], A. Stokes[3], James Downes[1], M. J. Steel[1,2] and Michael J. Withford[1,2]Affiliation list: 1. Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University; 2. Centre for Ultrahigh bandwidth devices for Optical Systems (CUDOS), MQ Photonics Research Centre; 3. Australian National Fabrication Facility (ANFF) OptoFab, Macquarie University node
Abstract: We discuss the fabrication of thermally reconfigurable photonic circuits in glass using a multi-step laser machining process. A classical characterisation of the phase-response of the optical modes to the thermo-optic heaters is performed. Cross-talk between separate heaters was reduced by patterning the surface using picosecond laser ablation.

Light-responsive liposomes enhances endosomal escape and gene interference
Wenjie Chen, Wei Deng and Ewa M Goldys
Affiliation list: ARC Centre of Excellence for Nanoscale BioPhotonics (CNBP), Macquarie University, Sydney, New South Wales 2109, Australia
Abstract: Light-responsive; endosomal escape; liposomes; verteporfin; gene delivery
In May 2016, European Commission approved the world's first gene therapy treatment for children: Strimvelis, which fixes faulty genes those cause severe combined immunodeficiency (ADA-SCID). In fact, effective gene therapy relies on high efficacy of delivering exogenous genes. Liposomes are used in constructing gene and drug delivery systems, widely applied into biomedical fields including gene therapy and chemotherapy. In this work we designed a kind of light-triggered liposomes, which encapsulated a clinically used photosensitiser (verteporfin, VP) and antisense DNA fragments. This smart complexes system can be responsive to s short time of UV light exposure, which were employed to silence a specific gene participating in regulations of neurite growth in PC12 cells. The light-induced enhancing efficacy of gene silencing was then assessed by cell differentiation. Additionally, we demonstrated this light-enhanced manner for gene delivery at subcellular level, particularly carried out the quantitative analysis of colocalization between DNA and endo/lysosomes. This light-triggered process offered a facile and effective platform for nonviral gene delivery, which can also be developed as a promising strategy for efficient gene therapy by carrying other therapeutic siRNA or DNA.

X-ray induced singlet oxygen generation by nanoparticle-photosensitizer conjugates: direct determination of singlet oxygen quantum yield.
Sandhya Clement, Elizabeth Camilleri, Wei Deng and Ewa M. Goldys
Affiliation list: ARC Centre of Excellence for Nanoscale BioPhotonics , Macquarie University ,NSW 2109, Australia
Abstract: CeF3 nanoparticles conjugated through electrostatic interaction with the photosensitiser, verteporfin are able to generate singlet oxygen, a key factor in photodynamic therapy using both UV and X-ray radiation. The singlet oxygen quantum yield of Verteporfin in water as well as that of the conjugate was measured for the first time using a chemical fluorescent reporter, SOSG, under X-ray activation.

The evolutionary impact of supermassive black holes on their host galaxies.
Michael Cowley[1,2], Lee Spiter[1,2] and ZFOURGE Team
Affiliation list: 1. Macquarie University; 2. Australian Astronomical Observatory
Abstract: Located at the centre of most massive galaxies, supermassive black holes are objects of extreme density up to billions of times more massive than our Sun. When matter falls into these monster black holes, huge amounts of energy is released, evidence of which is observed on scales far beyond the galaxy itself. It has long been suspected that this energy may be responsible for stopping galaxies from forming new stars, by heating or driving out its supply of star-forming gas. However, recent studies have pointed to the opposite possibility, where this energy flow can compress gas and trigger enhanced star-formation. In this work, I present new results from a study aiming to resolve this apparent contradiction by inspecting thousands of galaxies from a 12 billion-year evolutionary perspective. This is achieved by collating observations from numerous ground- and space-based telescopes. We use this data to compare the star-forming activity in galaxies with and without actively feeding supermassive black holes, allowing us to directly assess the influence of this process.

Major Cluster Mergers as Drivers of Galaxy Transformation and Evolution
Tiffany E. Day[1] and Matt S. Owers[1,2]
Affiliation list: 1. Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University; 2. Australian Astronomical Observatory
Abstract: The pursuit of determining precisely how galaxies form, transform and evolve constitutes the most active fields in extragalactic astrophysics today. Clusters of galaxies are the largest and most massive virialized objects in the observable Universe, growing hierarchically over cosmic time by the accretion of surrounding gas, dust and matter, including the infall of individual field galaxies or groups of galaxies. More rarely, clusters of galaxies grow by means of a gravitational merger between two or more existing clusters of galaxies, providing the most extreme example of this hierarchical formation scenario. In order to understand the kinematic state and dynamical history of major cluster mergers, and use that advancement to understand galaxy properties and how they evolve over time, we will consider this most extreme example - a major cluster merger - as this will exemplify the physical processes governing infalling galaxies, and reveal clues as to their differing properties.
This study focuses on the galaxy cluster Abell 2744, a massive cluster (1.8 +/- 0.4 x 10^15 M_Sun inside a radius of 1.3 Mpc (Mertin et al. (2011)) at a redshift of z = 0.3, and one of the most complicated merging systems known. Using archival Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) radio continuum data of Abell 2744, I will present my preliminary results obtained during the first year of my PhD.

Water temperature measurement using blue laser excitation and a 2-channel Raman spectrometer
Andrea de Lima Ribeiro[1], Christopher Artlett[1,2] and Helen Pask[1]
Affiliation list: 1. Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia; 2. Lastek PTY Ltd.
Abstract: Raman spectroscopy (RS) is a technique with potential to solve several problems in oceanographic remote sensing, being able to provide reliable data about subsurface water properties (e.g. temperature, salinity). Previous studies used a 532 nm laser (green) as excitation source aimed to extract temperature information of water samples by using RS and achieved an accuracy of ±0.1°C for Mili-Q water measurements; however, when applied to natural waters, Chlorophyll-a fluorescence signals overlap with the O-H stretching band, compromising the effectiveness of the method (Artlett, 2015). An approach to avoid the overlapping of signals is to use a different laser source, and the blue laser (473 nm) was chosen for three main reasons: (1) blue light has near optimal penetration in the water column; (2) the Raman returned signal for blue light is on the green range, with good transmittance in the water; (3) the peak of the Raman returned signal is more distant from the chlorophyll fluorescence band when compared with the green excitation. I will show the main results achieved so far in this project, aiming to determine water temperature with blue excitation and a purpose-designed, multi-channel Raman spectrometer.

Rapid Prototyping of Arrayed Waveguide Gratings
G. Douglass[1], F. Dreisow[2], S. Gross[1], S. Nolte[2] and M. J. Withford[1]
Affiliation list: 1. Centre for Ultrahigh bandwidth Devices for Optical Systems (CUDOS), MQ Photonics Research Centre, Department of Physics & Astronomy, Macquarie University, NSW 2109, Australia; 2. Institute of Applied Physics, Fredrich-Schiller-University Max-Wien-Platz 1,07743 Jena, Germany
Abstract: We demonstrate the ability to fabricate arrayed waveguide gratings (AWGs) using the femtosecond laser direct-write technique. Prototypes have been developed with a central wavelength of 633nm with a free spectral range of 22.4nm, 1.35nm resolution and 11.47% throughput from 4 orders.

Abstracts 17 - 32

Effect of pulse parameters on infrared nerve stimulation in vitro
Blake Entwisle[1], Simon Gross[1], Mark Connor[2] and Michael Withford[1]
Affiliation list: 1. Department of Physics and Astronomy, MQ Photonics Research Centre, ARC Centre for Ultrahigh Bandwidth Devices and Optical Systems (CUDOS), Macquarie University, NSW, 2109, Australia
2. Australian School of Advanced Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Macquarie University, NSW, 2109, Australia
Abstract: Infrared nerve stimulation (INS) is a nerve stimulation modality, first reported in 2005 [1], which utilises infrared laser pulses to directly activate excitable biological tissues. It has numerous advantages over other nerve stimulation modalities such as electrical stimulation, namely being a non-contact method with higher spatial specificity and no stimulation artefact in electrical recordings of cellular activity [2]. Additionally, INS does not require the addition of exogenous material to cells, as is the case with the release of caged neurotransmitters with ultraviolet light [3], nor do cells require artificial expression of light sensitive cation-channels, as is the case with optogenetics [4]. However, debate remains regarding the exact mechanisms underlying INS, and variability in results reported in the literature has limited progress [5].

Project PANOPTES: a citizen-scientist exoplanet transit survey using commercial digital cameras
Wilfred T Gee[1,2,3], Olivier Guyon[2,4,5], Josh Walawander[2], Nemanja Jovanovic[2,3] and Luc Boucher[6]
Affiliation list: 1. Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Hawai`i at Hilo, HI 96720, U.S.A.; 2. National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Subaru Telescope, 650 North A'Ohoku Place, Hilo, HI, 96720, U.S.A.; 3. Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University, NSW 2109, Australia; 4. Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, 85721, U.S.A.; 5. College of Optical Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, U.S.A.; 6. Gemini Observatory, c/o AURA, Casilla 603, La Serena, Chile
Abstract: Project PANOPTES (http://www.projectpanoptes.org) is aimed at establishing a collaboration between professional astronomers, citizen scientists and schools to discover a large number of exoplanets with the transit technique. We have developed digital camera based imaging units to cover large parts of the sky and look for exoplanet transits. Each unit costs approximately $5000 USD and runs automatically every night. By using low-cost, commercial digital single-lens reflex (DSLR) cameras, we have developed a uniquely cost-efficient system for wide field astronomical imaging, offering approximately two orders of magnitude better etendue per unit of cost than professional wide-field surveys. Both science and outreach, our vision is to have thousands of these units built by schools and citizen scientists gathering data, making this project the most productive exoplanet discovery machine in the world.

Steeply Rising Star Formation Radial Profiles as a marker of Inside-out Quenching in Starforming SAMI Galaxies
G Goldstein, R McDermid, M Owers and SAMI Team
Affiliation list: Macquarie University, AAO, Sydney University and other centres associated with the SAMI Team.
Abstract: Galaxy evolution over cosmic time is associated with an increase in the proportion of non-star-forming and red galaxies, however the shutdown in star formation (often termed quenching) remains poorly understood.
Using integral field spectroscopic data from a sample of 492 face-on galaxies in the SAMI Galaxy Survey, we identify 60 starforming galaxies with a steeply rising specific star formation rate radial profile that are candidates for inside-out quenching; their properties including the bulge fraction are compared to starforming galaxies with flat radial profiles in an effort to elucidate quenching mechanisms. This study differs from most previous studies of quenching in that the quenching group consists of starforming galaxies, not passive galaxies. No differences in the bulge fraction has been found between the inside-out quenching group and a comparison flat radial profile group. The frequency of a bar is similar in both groups. The inside-out quenching group has a higher proportion of galaxies with AGN/LINER emission line diagnostics than the flat radial profile group. The result indicates the onset of inside out quenching does not require the presence of a bulge and favors AGN feedback or stellar feedback over morphological quenching as a quenching mechanism.

Quantum Measurements as a resource
Thomas Guff and Alexei Gilchrist
Affiliation list: Physics Dept MQ and EQuS ARC CoE
Abstract: Recent developments in quantum thermodynamics have demonstrated that resource theories are a rich framework in which to describe quantities of interest (the resource) in quantum mechanics. Resource theories have been developed for entanglement, athemality, reference frames and quantum coherence. In this work we examine generalised quantum measurements as a resource. Several measures of the quality or strength of a measurement have been proposed in the literature and these can be considered candidate ‘currencies’ for the resource. An interesting twist with this resource is that some of these currencies are linked to each other via quantum measurement back-action.

Putting nanomaterials into the tissue and body context
Anna Guller[1,2], Inga Kuschnerus[1,3,4], Zahra Khabir[1], Annemarie Nadort[4], Alla Generalova[5], Elena Petersen[2], Anatoly Shekhter[2], Ewa Goldys[1,4], Yi Qian[6] and Andrei Zvyagin[1,2]Affiliation list: 1. Department of Physics and Astronomy, MQU; 2. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Institute for regenerative medicine, Moscow, Russia; 3. Institute of Physics, University of Lubeck, Germany; 4. The Centre for Nanoscale BioPhotonics, ARC, Australia; 5. Shemyakin and Ovchinnikov Institute of bioorganic chemistry of RAS, Moscow, Russia; 6. FMHS, MQU
Abstract: Use of the nanomaterials for biomedical applications in real tissues and body as a whole require optimization of the models, which are expected to represent the complexity of natural organism's environment. We will report on our results regarding the development and validation of 3D bioartificial (engineered) tissues and the biocompatibile upconverting nanoparticles for experimental medicine and nanotheranostic applications.

Using hyperspectral imaging as a medical diagnostic tool
Abbas Habibalahi, Ayad Anwer and Ewa Goldys
Affiliation list: The Centre for Nanoscale BioPhotonics / Macquarie university
Abstract: Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) as an under development technique offers to extend human vision from a limited wavelength to many wavelength in medical diagnostic. In fact, this imaging technique forms lots of narrow band images, each has a specific wavelength. In comparison with conventional camera, this methods consider an image containing information about both spectral and spatial domain. Although HIS has been widely used in some areas such as agriculture, remote sensing, its application in bioengineering is quite novel, yet absolutely promising. In this study we aim to develop a HIS technique which is able to distinguish between normal and diseased cells. Our results show that HSI can be considered as a new diagnostic method in bio science environment.

Distinguish NADH/NADPH changes caused by oxidative stress using Hyperspectral Imaging
Meng He, Aziz Rehman, Ayad Anwer, Martin Gosnell, Guozhen Liu and Ewa Goldys
Affiliation list: ARC Centre of Excellence in Nanoscale Biophotonics (CNBP), Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University, North Ryde 2109, Australia
Abstract: NAD plays an important role of cellular energy metabolism. In contrast, its phosphorylated form,NADP, plays a central role in biosynthetic pathways and antioxidant defence. The auto-fluorescence from reduced forms of both pyridine nucleotides are fluorescent cannot be distinguished efficienttly, as they are spectrally identical. An oxidative stress is introduced here to generate changes in NAD(P)H metabolism, we find that Hyperspectral Imaging(HSI) has the capacity to differentiates quantitatively between the two substance. Systematic manipulations to change the balance of oxidative stress suggest that it will impact the distribution and concentration of NAD(P)H fluorescence. and it provides insights into the metabolism of the HEK293 cells. This uncovers changes of NAD(P)H in populations of cells, raising questions about their distinct metabolic roles.

Is bigger better? The common envelope interaction as a function of the envelope mass.
Roberto Iaconi[1], Orsola De Marco[1] and Jean-Claude Passy[2]
Affiliation list: 1. Department of Physics & Astronomy, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109, Australia; 2. Argelander Institute fur Astronomie, Bonn Universitat, Bonn, Germany
Abstract: The common envelope interaction is a rapid astrophysical phenomenon that can occur during the life of a binary star. When one of the stars (primary) in a binary grows enough in radius to swallow a smaller companion, the two objects in-spiral towards each other. Their orbital energy and angular momentum are transferred to the envelope gas, spinning it up and unbinding it from the gravitational attraction of the binary. Observations show us that the remnants of the two stars end up orbiting at a very close distance and all the gas of the envelope is expelled, or, if not all the gas is expelled the two stars merge.

Non-imaging Optics of Multi-LED light source for Hyperspectral Imaging
Kashif Islam[1,2], Martin E. Gosnell[2,3], Martin Ploschner[1,2] and Ewa Goldys[1,2]
Affiliation list: 1. Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University, North Ryde,Sydney, 2109, NSW, Australia; 2. ARC Centre of Excellence Centre for NanoScale Biophotonics (CNBP), Sydney, Australia; 3. Quantitative (Biotechnology) Pty Ltd, Beaumont Hill, Sydney, NSW, Australia
Abstract: The main objective of our work was to design a light source for hyperspectral imaging. This light source should be capable to collect and illuminate light of LEDs at the smaller aperture of cone (9mm) which could be either coupled with secondary optics of a microscope or utilized independently for hyperspectral studies.

Novel saturable absorbers for mode-locked Tm:ZBLAN waveguide chip lasers
Xiantao Jiang[1], Simon Gross[1], Han Zhang[2], Zhinan Guo[2], Fabian Rotermund[3], Dong-Il Yeom[3], Michael J. Withford[1] and Alexander Fuerbach[1]
Affiliation list: 1. Centre for Ultrahigh bandwidth Devices for Optical Systems, Macquarie University, NSW 2109, Australia.; 2. College of Optoelectronic Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060, P.R. China.; 3. Department of Physics & Department of Energy Systems Research, Ajou University,Suwon 443749, Republic of Korea
Abstract: Novel saturable absorbers based on carbon nanotubes, graphene, topological insulators, transition metal dichalcogenides and black phosphorus were fabricated and characterized. Their performance for short pulse generation in Tm:ZBLAN waveguide chip lasers was analyzed.

The comparative study of singlet oxygen generation efficiency of Rose Bengal, Gold nanoparticles, and Gold-Rose Bengal conjugate in photodynamic therapy
Manoj B. Kale, Sandhya Clement and Ewa M. Goldys
Affiliation list: ARC Centre of Excellence for Nanoscale Biophotonics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia.
Abstract: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an advanced methodology for the treatment of cancers using photosensitizers which upon irradiating light generate cytotoxic singlet oxygen (1O2) and kills cancer cells. The aim of this work is to enhance the 1O2 generation efficiency of the photosensitizer by conjugating it with the nanoparticles. For this purpose, the quantitative measurement of 1O2 generation is carried out on photosensitizer Rose Bengal (RB), Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), and AuRB by using Singlet Oxygen Sensor Green reagent. Finally, the singlet oxygen quantum yield measurements are carried out.

Visualization and quantification of photoluminescent nanoparticles penetration in human skin
Zahra Khabir[1,2], Amy Holmes[3], Vlada Rozova[1,4], Liuen Liang[2,5], Xiaoxue Xu[2], Honghua Hu[5], Michael S. Roberts,3,6] and Andrei V. Zvyagin[1,2,4]
Affiliation list: 1. Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia; 2. ARC Centre of Excellence for Nanoscale BioPhotonics, Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia; 3. School of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences, The University of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia; 4. Laboratory of Optical Theranostics, N. I. Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia; 5. Department of Biomedical Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia; 6. Therapeutics Research Centre, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia
Abstract: Today, applications of nanomaterials in different sectors including health, environment and industry grow at a high rate. Undoubtedly, they will have both beneficial and detrimental effects on our life. Photoluminescent nanoparticles (NPs) such as ZnO NPs have received a lot of attention from sunscreen and cosmetics manufacturers because of their excellent protection against UV radiation and stability in sunlight, but they are raising a concern about the possibility of dermal permeation which could make them potentially toxic. Based on the literature review, the human skin is structured in a way that acts as an excellent barrier against external substances and only allows those materials with the size not larger than 600Da to penetrate. This implies that NPs would not be able to pass the skin barrier. However, some papers have been recently published on the transdermal penetration of NPs. The conflicting reports suggest that NPs may penetrate into the deeper skin layers in limited amount but a lack of suitable imaging system prevents their detection. Consequently, we carried out systematic studies to evaluate the penetration depth of two types of photoluminescent NPs, ZnO and NaYF4:Yb,Er NPs in excised human skin samples using two ultrahigh-sensitivity detection systems; a multiphoton microscope with second harmonic generation imaging capability and a laser scanning confocal microscope equipped with an airyscanning detector. Upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs), such as NaYF4:Yb,Er NPs are novel luminescent probes for numerous applications in nanobiophotonics. By virtue of their optical properties which allow a background free imaging detection at prolonged observation times, they could be used to investigate the dermal penetration of NPs through the potential routes. The effects of using different surface coatings and chemical penetration enhancers on the transdermal penetration of these NPs will also be discussed.

The SUNBIRD project: Uncovering supernovae in luminous infrared galaxies
E. C. Kool[1,2], S. D. Ryder[2], E. Kankare[3] and S. Mattila[4]
Affiliation list: 1. Macquarie University 2. AAO 3. Queen's University Belfast, UK 4. University of Turku, Finland
Abstract: A substantial number of core-collapse supernovae are expected to be hosted by luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) due to the intense star formation rate of these galaxies, but very few have been found. This makes these very dusty LIRGs prominent hunting grounds to resolve the so called “Supernova Rate problem”, where up to half of the expected supernovae are not observed.
In the SUNBIRD (Supernovae UNmasked By InfraRed Detection) project we aim to uncover dust-obscured supernovae by monitoring over 25 LIRGs, using near-infrared Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics imaging on the Gemini South and Keck telescopes. Such discoveries are vital for determining the fraction of all supernovae which will be missed as a result of dust obscuration by current and future optical surveys. I present the first results of SUNBIRD, which includes both supernova detections very close to galactic nuclei as well as in surprisingly isolated regions of these LIRGs.

In Search of Lost Shocks
Andrew Lehmann[1], Christoph Federrath[2] and Mark Wardle[1]
Affiliation list: 1. Department of Physics and Astronomy, and Research Centre for Astronomy, Astrophysics, and Astrophotonoics, Macquarie University 2. Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University
Abstract: The formation of stars occurs in the dense molecular cloud phase of the interstellar medium. Observations and numerical simulations have shown that supersonic magnetised turbulence plays a key role in this process. Simulations have also shown that a large fraction of the turbulent energy dissipates in shock waves. Fast- and slow-mode magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) shocks distinctly compress and heat up the molecular gas, and so provide an important probe of the physical conditions within a turbulent cloud. We developed the publicly available algorithm, SHOCKFIND, to extract and characterise the mixture of shock families in MHD turbulence. We give the first prediction of the mixture of turbulence-driven MHD shock families in a simulated molecular cloud. Using subgrid one-dimensional models of MHD shocks we estimate that ~0.03% of the volume of a typical molecular cloud in the Milky Way will be shock heated above 50 K, at any time during the lifetime of the cloud. This shock heating could have a signficant impact on the dynamical evolution of molecular clouds.

Three-dimensional Controlled Growth of Rare-earth doped heterogeneous nanocrystals
Deming Liu[1], Xiaoxue Xu[1], Yi Du[2], Xian Qin[3,4], Chenshuo Ma[1], Yuhai Zhang[3], Ewa M. Goldys[1], James A. Piper[1], Shixue Dou[2], Xiaogang Liu[3,4] and Dayong Jin[1]
Affiliation list: 1. Advanced Cytometry Labs, ARC Centre of Excellence for Nanoscale BioPhotonics (CNBP), Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW, 2109, Australia; 2. Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, Innovation Campus, University of Wollongong, NSW, 2522, Australia 3. Department of Chemistry, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117543, Singapore 4. Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, 3 Research Link, Singapore 117602, Singapore
Abstract: The controlled growth of heterogeneous crystalline layers on a core will lead to scalable synthesis of new nanomaterials with tunable mono-dispersity in size, shape, composition, structure and surface properties. There are many unclear insights waiting to be discovered to reveal these whole atomic growth processes involving multiple role-players in the context of their nanoscale reaction environment. We here report that oleic acid plays a dynamic role in leading to both growth and de-growth of a rare-earth doped fluoride nanocrystal along a well-defined direction. We provide both experimental and computational evidences that oleic acid ions (OA-) and OH- molecules co-exist with oleic acid molecules (OAH) as the functional co-ligands and can change their cooperative roles in passivation, re-activation and even dissolution of atoms at certain crystalline facet. These dynamic roles are highly responsive to the polarity and thermal stability of nanocrystal surfaces, the concentrations ratio of OAH and OA-, and lattice mismatching rates of the heterogeneous layers. These findings allow fine tuning of assessable conditions so as to switch the roles of co-ligands so that a crystalline layer could be grafted onto or trimmed off from a surface of a crystalline core. Examples of interesting 3-D structures (Figure 1) have been further demonstrated towards programmable engineering of nanomaterials in an ordered manner according to a design. This discovery of anisotropic surface properties and new capability of engineering at nanoscale will enable both tailored functionality and selectivity for a given application and bottom-up fabrication and assembly of nanoscale building blocks.

Abstracts 32 - 45

Label-free functional characterization of “stem cell – cartilage” system by hyperspectral imaging (with unsupervised unmixing) for applications in regenerative medicine
Saabah B. Mahbub[1], Peter Succar[2], Martin E. Gosnell[1,3], Ayad G. Anwer[1], M Medynskyj[4], Ben Herbert[2], Graham Vessey[4] and Ewa M. Goldys[1]
Affiliation list: 1. ARC Centre of Excellence in Nanoscale Biophotonics, Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia,
2. Department of Chemistry and Biomolecular Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia, 3. Quantitative Pty Ltd, 4. Regeneus Ltd, 25 Bridge Street, Pymble NSW 2073, Australia
Abstract: Recently adipose-derived stem cells (ADSC) based therapy are being used in regenerative medicine for treating a range of the bone and joint disorders such as osteoarthritis in both animals and humans. The ADSCs have been shown to have anti-inflammatory effects and in some circumstances to aid regeneration of the cartilage. These therapeutic effects are known to be driven by secretions from the stem cells which is at the forefront of these new regenerative treatments. The stem cells embed within the joint and secrete a range of cytokines that drive the therapeutic effect [1-6].

Can we predict laser behaviour?
T. Malica[1], J.P. Toomey[1], K. A. Shore[2] and D.M. Kane[1]
Affiliation list: 1. MQ~Photonics Research Centre and Dept of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia; 2. School of Electronic Engineering, Bangor University, Wales, UK
Abstract: Imagine a world where we know how every laser device would behave at any given current value even before it’s switched on.
An ideal laser is a stable, single-wavelength light source. But, in reality, many other possibilities occur. Depending on the type of laser and the experimental setup, there may be one or more parameters affecting the laser dynamics. These dynamics may be a result of perturbation(s) introduced to an otherwise stable semiconductor laser. Direct injection current modulation, optical injection from another device and delayed optical feedback from an external mirror are some of the techniques through which these perturbations can be introduced in a laser system. This poster focuses on the delayed optical feedback system as shown in Fig1. This setup is known to display complex dynamics when the amount of light coupled back into the device is varied.

Superradiance from nitrogen-vacancy centres in nanodiamonds
Rochelle Martin, Ben Baragiola, Mattias Johnsson, Thomas Volz and Gavin Brennen
Affiliation list: Macquarie University, EQuS, The Diamond Nanoscience Laboratory
Abstract: We present a theoretical study of superradiance with nitrogen-vacancy centres in nanodiamonds. Superradiance is a radiation phenomenon where identical proximal atoms emit photons collectively. A nitrogen-vacancy centre is an “artificial atom” in which indistinguishability cannot be assumed a priori. Nevertheless, superradiance from nitrogen-vacancy centres in nanodiamond has been observed very recently. While a phenomenological model built on Dicke states and the known properties of nitrogen-vacancy centres was able to explain the experimental findings well, many of the microscopic details that introduce distinguishability were not included: (i) photon emission into orientation-dependent superpositions of polarizations, (ii) transition and permanent dipole-dipole interactions, (iii) random distributions of transition frequencies and spatial locations, and (iv) nitrogen-vacancy centres couple to lattice vibrations. These effects are generally expected to diminish superradiance. In this work, we develop numerical simulations based on a model which takes these features into account. Based on the simulations of emission dynamics, we conclude that superradiance persists for certain nitrogen-vacancy centre densities, consistent with the experimental findings. Furthermore, our simulation tools provide a theoretical framework to study coherently driven dynamics, other temperature regimes, or use of other colour centres.

Extratidal stars and mass loss rates from the globular clusters NGC 1851, M3 and M13
Colin Navin[1,2], Sarah Martell[3], Jeffrey Simpson[1,4] and Daniel Zucker[1,2,4]
Affiliation list: 1. Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University, NSW 2109, Australia; 2. Astronomy, Astrophysics and Astrophotonics Research Centre, Macquarie University, 2109, Australia; 3. School of Physics, University of South Wales, NSW 2052, Australia; 4. Australian Astronomical Observatory, PO Box 915, North Ryde, NSW 1670, Australia.
Abstract: Individual stars that can be identified as recently escaped from a particular globular cluster are difficult to identify and are still a rare class of objects. Quantifying the fraction of extratidal globular cluster stars provides unique and powerful insights into (i) the dynamical evolution of globular clusters and (ii) the fraction of field halo stars that were contributed by globular clusters.

Does adiabatic transfer work for digital spatially coupled waveguides?
Vincent Ng[1,4], Jesse A. Vaitkus[2], Zachary J. Chaboyer[1,4], Thach Nguyen[2,3], Judith M. Dawes[1,4], Michael J. Withford[1,4], Michael J. Steel[1,4] and Andrew D. Greentree[2,3]Affiliation list: 1. MQ Photonics Research Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University, NSW 2109, Australia; 2. Chemical and Quantum Physics, School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, Melbourne 3001, Australia; 3. School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, RMIT University, Melbourne 3001, Australia; 4. ARC Centre of Excellence for Ultrahigh bandwidth Devices for Optical Systems (CUDOS)
Abstract: Adiabatic passage is a robust transfer process for a three-state system with distinctive properties. For three states |a>, |b>, |c>, it allows the population of the input state |a> to be completely transferred to the target state |c>, through the intermediate state |b>. This is achieved by varying the coupling coefficients {Ωab, Ωbc}. Throughout this process the intermediate state |b> accrues no significant population and remains dark. Consequently, adiabatic passage has proved to be robust against losses in the intermediate state |b>. Adiabatic passage has also been shown to be insensitive to the exact coupling profile, making it extremely flexible. These properties have lead to a wide range of applications of adiabatic passage: from atomic systems to broadband waveguide couplers [1, 2].

Shining Light on the Dark Milky Way: Probing our Galaxy’s Hidden Gas
Van Hiep Nguyen[1] and Joanne Dawson[1,2]
Affiliation list: 1. Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University; 2. CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science
Abstract: The question of how galaxies convert atomic hydrogen into star-forming molecular clouds is still an outstanding mystery. The radio emission from atomic hydrogen and CO molecules has traditionally been used to observe interstellar hydrogen in its atomic and molecular phases. However, recent work has discovered that HI and CO fail to account for as much as half of the neutral gas mass in our local Milky Way. This leaves room for a vast quantity of “dark interstellar medium” - a current hot topic in astrophysics. My work will use radio and infra-red observations to study this gas in our Galaxy.

Hydroxyl as a Probe of our Galaxy's Missing Gas
Anita Petzler, Joanne Dawson and Cormac Purcell
Affiliation list: Macquarie University, CSIRO
Abstract: In recent years it has become increasingly apparent that the measuring tools used by radio astronomers to measure the gas in the Milky Way may not account for a substantial fraction of the gas present. Carbon monoxide (CO), the previously favoured tracer of molecular gas, has been found to underestimate the diffuse molecular gas mass by up to 50%. Therefore we must turn to other species that can more faithfully trace the molecular gas. A popular contender for such an alternative tracer is the hydroxyl radical (OH).
The Southern Parkes Large-Area Survey in Hydroxyl (SPLASH) aims to map the Southern Galactic plane in the 4 ground state transitions of OH. From these measurements it can be determined how well OH traces the missing molecular gas in the galaxy. Additionally, the OH measurements can be used to measure temperature, density and local IR fields in the inner Galactic Disk.
My project will use observations from the Australian Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) along with those from Parkes to measure OH optical depth and excitation temperature along 15 sightlines towards bright background sources in the SPLASH region. These measurements will allow the evaluation of key assumptions made in the processing of the SPLASH data.

Towards Bioconjugation of Nanoruby with Streptavidin
Rashmi Pillai[2], Varun Sreenivasan[2], Mark Connor[1] and Andrei Zvyagin[1]
Affiliation list: 1. Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences 2. Department of Physics and Astronomy, Faculty of Science and Engineering
Abstract: Opioids (e.g., morphine) are the most commonly used drugs to alleviate moderate to severe pain. But they are often used with caution due to severe side effects such as euphoria and constipation, in addition to the problems of developing addiction and tolerance. Creating newer drugs with alleviated symptoms rely on understanding the location and mechanisms of drug-action at a molecular level within cells and tissues. Our goal is to create a bright and stable probe to understand the molecular pathways of opioid drugs, thereby overcoming a number of limitations faced by biologists and pharmacologists at present.

The Distribution of Mass in Early-Type Galaxies
Adriano Poci[1], Michele Cappellari[2] and Richard McDermid[2]
Affiliation list: 1. Macquarie University 2. Oxford University
Abstract: Galaxies are typically composed of two types of matter: the visible matter that makes up the stars and gas, and dark matter which is invisible to current observations and is subsequently poorly understood. We construct detailed models, using the observed stellar motions, in order to study how these types of matter interact, how they are arranged within the galaxy, and crucially, how much of each type there is. These models are constructed for 258 spheroidal galaxies from the nearby Universe, using a combination of two-dimensional spectroscopy and broad-band imaging . We find that, on average, dark matter makes up 10-15% of the combined mass in the central regions of our galaxies. We also find that, while the stars are arranged in a variety of configurations within these galaxies, the total mass distribution (dark plus visible matter) has a narrow range of shapes. This implies a special interaction between the two different types of matter that conspires to give a near-constant combined total mass profile.

Revealing the Dark Universe using the next generation of continuum radio surveysGlen Rees[1,2], Lee Spitler[1] and the EMU Cosmology TeamAffiliation list: 1. Macquarie University; 2. CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science
Abstract: The nature of dark energy and dark matter remain shrouded in mystery and yet are vital in our current understanding of the Universe and its eventual fate. Cosmology using radio astronomy surveys has the potential to offer a new window into these dark components, in synergy with surveys carried out at other wavelengths. However, current predictions regarding the cosmological sensitivity of this radio window assume a level of perfection in depth and scale that is unrealistic in practice, due to imperfect nature of observations and the artifacts associated with them. In order to truly reach the predicted cosmological sensitivity of next generation radio surveys, we need both an understanding of observational effects in deep radio surveys, and a way to include these effects in large scale cosmology simulations. In order to facilitate this, we have analysed two new sets of radio observations and compared our results to those from traditional numerical cosmology models. We have also developed a new technique to simulate cosmological effects at radio wavelengths, which is capable of including observational artifacts unique to the radio regime, and thus have taken a step towards realising the future potential of radio astronomy cosmology.

Fluorescence quenching of free and bound NADH in HeLa cells determined by hyperspectral imaging and unmixing of cell autofluorescence
Aziz ul Rehman[1,2], Ayad G. Anwer[1], Martin E. Gosnell[1,3], Saabah B. Mahbub[1], Guozhen Liu[1,4] and Ewa M. Goldys[1]
Affiliation list: 1. ARC Centre of Excellence in Nanoscale Biophotonics, Macquarie University, Sydney, 2109, New South Wales, Australia; 2. Biophotonics Laboratory, National Institute of Lasers and Optronics, Lehtrar Road, Islamabad 45650, Pakistan; 3. Quantitative Pty Ltd, ABN 17 165 684 186, www.quantitative.net.au, tel. +614 22 498 630; 4. Key Laboratory of Pesticide and Chemical Biology of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079, PR China
Abstract: Carbonyl cyanide-p-trifluoro methoxyphenylhydrazone (FCCP) is a well-known mitochondrial uncoupling agent. We examined FCCP-induced fluorescence quenching of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) in solution and in cultured HeLa cells at in a wide range of FCCP concentrations from 10-to 1000μM. A non-invasive label-free method of hyperspectral imaging of cell autofluorescence combined with unsupervised unmixing was used to separately isolate the emissions of free and bound NADH, and flavin adenosine dinucleotide (FAD) from cell autofluorescence. Hyperspectral image analysis of FCCP-treated HeLa cells confirms that this agent selectively quenches the fluorescence of free and bound NADH without affecting FAD. FCCP quenching of free NADH in cells and in solution is similar, but quenching of bound NADH in cells is attenuated compared to solution quenching due to the
antioxidant response in cells. Chemical quenching of NADH fluorescence by FCCP validates the results of unsupervised unmixing of cell autofluorescence and it provides insights into the metabolism of the HeLa cells. JC1 labelling and measurements of average NAD/NADH content in cells confirm that FCCP effectively quenches cellular NADH in a broad range of concentrations.

Using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics to Model the Common Envelope
Thomas Reichardt[1], Orsola De Marco[1] and Daniel Price[2]
Affiliation list: 1. Macquarie University; 2. Monash University
Abstract: The common envelope interaction is incredibly important to the understanding of binary stellar evolution, as many binary systems necessarily must have gone through at least one common envelope interaction in the past. The idea behind the common envelope is attractively simple, however, hidden complexities have inhibited understanding of the interaction. Over the past couple of decades, hydrodynamic simulations have been pivotal in gaining knowledge of the interaction. Unfortunately, there are still notable disagreements between observed and simulated parameters of post-common envelope binaries. This work details several new simulations undertaken with a newly developed smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) code, Phantom, in particular discussing the current issues and directions of research.

Optical Levitation of Nanodiamonds Containing Colour Centres for Enhanced Optical Forces.
Reece P. Roberts, Mathieu Juan, Thomas Volz and Gabriel Molina-Terriza
Affiliation list: Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University, North Ryde, New South Wales 2109, Australia; ARC Center for Engineered Quantum Systems, Macquarie University, North Ryde, New South
Wales 2109, Australia
Abstract: Optical trapping and levitation offers a non-contact, non-destructive tool for manipulating and controlling particles from micron sized particles down to individual atoms with light. One can distinguish two different regimes of optical trapping. The first relying on the ability to trap small particles (from tens of nm to tens of μm); and the second one related to the confinement and cooling of atoms or collections of atoms. Until now there has been no system that combines the forces due to both classical trapping and atom trapping as they are usually contained in completely separate parameter regimes. Yet both of these trapping regimes arise from the same effect: the interaction between a polarisable object and the electric field of the trapping laser. In this context, nano-diamonds containing colour centres behave as both a dielectric particle and an artificial atom.

Novel approaches for microscopy and spectroscopy of spider silks
Maria Samokhina[1], Deb Kane[1], Doug Little[1], Nicole Vella[2], Paul Guagliardo[3] and David McPhail[4]
Affiliation list: 1. Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University, Sydney 2109, Australia; 2. Faculty of Science, Macquarie University Australia, Sydney 2109, Australia; 3. Centre for Microscopy, Characterisation and Analysis, The University of Western Australia, Perth 6009, Australia; 4. Department of Materials, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ, UK
Abstract: The orb-weaving spiders have undergone about 200 million years of evolution. In order to allow the derived orb weavers to transfer into a brighter environment, their webs became a highly sophisticated mechanical, and, a high optical quality, tool for catching prey. Spider silk is known for being extraordinarily tough and strong. It is also biocompatible and biodegradable, enabling a range of possible medical and engineering applications. Furthermore, the silk of certain orb-weaver spiders is transparent, birefringent and an optically smooth material. It can potentially function as an optical element. The micro-optics and optical properties of spider silk has been hitherto understudied, with very few research papers existing in this field. All applications related to spider silk will be possible in the future following the establishment of the artificial silk mass production. In turn, the mass production of artificial silk depends on growing knowledge about the composition, structure and spinning mechanisms of the silk. The major goal of my project is the research of novel approaches to investigate the morphological structure and composition of the silk with relation to its properties on microscale. This includes secondary ion mass spectroscopy (nanoSIMS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and light scattering studies of spider silk.

Abstracts 46 - 57

High power single-longitudinal mode diamond Raman laser at 1240 nm
Soumya Sarang, Oliver Lux, Ondrej Kitzler, Robert Williams, Aaron McKay and Rich P. Mildren.
Affiliation list:MQ Photonics Research Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University, NSW 2109, Australia.
Abstract:Applications such as gravitational wave sensing, high-resolution spectroscopy and remote sensing (LIDAR), atom cooling, optical metrology and interferometry requires low-intensity noise and narrow linewidth laser sources which are provided by single longitudinal mode (SLM) lasers. Unlike the conventional inversion lasers, spatial hole burning which is responsible for the multimode operation is absent in Raman lasers. However, till date SLM Raman lasers have been realized either in low-power semiconductor spherical microcavities and waveguides or rather complex ring cavities and linear cavities with linewidth narrowing elements. Diamond has already enabled power scaling of the continuous-wave (CW) lasers in external cavity configurations owing to its high Raman gain and superior thermal conductivity. Our aim is to study the spectral characteristics of the diamond Raman lasers and generate a high power SLM output by pumping with an SLM laser source. We report a single-longitudinal mode output at powers up to 4 W from a CW standing-wave external cavity diamond Raman laser pumped by a tunable fiber-amplified diode laser of linewidth 50 MHz. This was accomplished in a cavity having a mode spacing about 35 times smaller than the diamond Raman linewidth (45 GHz) without any intracavity frequency selective element. However, frequent mode-hopping and ultimately multiple modes are observed at higher output powers. This can be attributed to the change in cavity length due to the heat deposition in diamond which varies the thermal expansion coefficient and thermo-optic coefficient of the diamond.

The Effect of Non-Ideal Magnetohydrodynamics on Disc winds from Protoplanetary Discs
J Tocknell and M Wardle
Affiliation list:Macquarie University
Abstract:Protoplanetary discs, the precursors of planets, are of great interest with the recent discoveries of myriad extrasolar planets. Their physical conditions and kinematics help govern how planets form, so understanding these disks is vital for building models of planet formation. Jets and disc winds have significant effects on the evolution of protoplanetary discs. Current models of these outflows typically ignore non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic effects, but these are known to operate inside these discs, and affect the structure of these discs, for example suppressing magnetically-driven turbulence in the disc. In this poster, I present preliminary results including non-ideal effects in models of disc winds.

Observation of Room-Temperature Spontaneous Superradiance from Single Diamond Nanocrystals
C. Bradac[1,2], M. Johnsson[2], M. van Breugel[1,2], B. Besga[1,2], B. Baragiola[2], R. Martin]1,2], M. L. Juan[2], G. Molina-Terriza[2], G. Brenne[2]n and T. Volz[1,2]Affiliation list: 1. Diamond Nanosciends Lab, Quantum Materials & Applications Group, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University, New South Wales 2109, Australia; 2. ARC Centre of Excellence for Engineered Quantum Systems, Macquarie University, New South Wales 2109, Australia
Abstract:Nanocrystalline diamond (size ≤ 100nm) is a unique material that combines the extreme mechanical, thermal, chemical, electronic and optical properties of diamond with the high surface area and chemical reactivity of nanomaterials. Known in the community as 'nanodiamond', it has attracted increasing attention over the past few decades due to its striking potential for applications in nanotechnology. The feasibility of many of these nanodiamond-based applications heavily relies on the spin and optical properties of the centre. Here we investigate the properties of diamond nanoparticles containing a high density of nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centres. Specifically, we report the observation of room-temperature superradiance for single nanodiamonds containing many NV centres (~10^3). Superradiant behaviour occurs when several identical emitters are highly confined in space (V ≪ λ^3) and build up coherence amongst each other. This leads to a significant speed-up in the photon emission rate and to non-trivial correlations between the emitted photons, which we both observe experimentally in our nanodiamond-NV centres.

A homogenous distance catalogue for Galactic Post-AGB objects
S.B. Vickers[1], D.J. Frew[2], M.S. Owers[1,3], Q.A. Parker[2] and I.S. Bojicic[2]
Affiliation list: 1. Macquarie University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, North Ryde, 2109, Australia; 2. The University of Hong Kong, Department of Physics, Hong Kong, China; 3. Australian Astronomical Observatory, North Ryde, 1670, Australia
Abstract: Post-AGB (PAGB) evolution is when low-intermediate mass stars expel their gaseous envelopes toward the end of their life. This expulsion leads to a hot white dwarf surrounded by a nebula with beautiful and complex shapes. The transition from PAGB to PNe is poorly understood due to the inability to accurately determine their physical characteristics. What is needed in order to characterise these objects and understand this phenomena we require accurate distances rarely available in the literature. By gathering all available photometry we were able to generate an SED for each object and determine the total integrated flux. This total flux combined with a luminosity determined from the stars position in the galaxy leads to a distance (Vickers et al. 2016). A subset of PAGB objects are the highly luminous RV Tauri variables that show similarities to type 2 Cepheids. By using a sample of known RV Tauri stars from the Magellanic clouds we are able to determine period luminosity relations in various bands that have been used to determine the luminosities of their galactic counterparts. There appears to be two distinct populations of RV Tauri stars in both the galaxy and Magellanic clouds, a disc population (objects with an SED indicative of a disc) and a non-IR population where little if any IR excess exists. Now that we have a complete distance catalogue for all Galactic PAGB objects. This catalogue has allowed us to begin to constrain the physical parameters of this poorly understood evolutionary phase and to determine links between these physical characteristics and their morphology.

Folate-mediated fluorescence imaging probe based on PEGylated polystyrene nanoparticles for targeted cancer diagnosis
Fei Wang, Nicole Cordina and Ewa Goldys
Affiliation list:ARC Centre for Nanoscale Biophotonics
Abstract: Fluorescent polystyrene particles have been extensively used as targeted imaging agents in the past decades due to their nontoxicity and long circulation in biological conditions. These particles are PEGylated to improve their biocompatibility and colloidal stability, and then bioconjugated with folic acid and monoclonal antibody to develop targeted cancer imaging agent for early colorectal cancer diagnosis. Cellular toxicity, in vitro cellular uptake kinetics, and in vitro fluorescence imaging of colorectal cancer cells (HCT 116) and normal colorectal cells (CCD 841 CoN) were investigated to assess their toxicity, biological stability and imaging capacity. The results show that these particles with PEG surface modification exhibit better biocompatibility and colloidal stability, and higher labelling efficiency compared with non-PEG surface modified controls, indicating these biocompatible fluorescent polystyrene particles hold great promise to invasively probe individual interacting cancer biomarkers for targeted cancer imaging. This biomedical imaging technology will contribute to the developments and advances in cancer cell detection, which has translational opportunities to neuroscience, cardiologyand embryology.

A simple smartphone based device towards biomedical colorimetric and fluorescent signal detection
Piotr Wargocki[1], Guozhen Liu[1], Ayad Anwer[1], Wei Deng[1], Montarop Yamabhai[2] and Ewa M. Goldys[1]
Affiliation list:1. ARC Centre of Excellence in Nanoscale Biophotonics (CNBP), Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University, North Ryde 2109, Australia; 2. Molecular Biotechnology Laboratory, Suranaree University of Technology, Thailand
Abstract:Smartphone based devices for biomedical applications continues to be an attractive topic due to its potential for device miniaturization and point-of-care diagnostics. Improvements in smartphone sensors’ capabilities and increasing computational power are increasing the possibilities. The reported smartphone based biomedical sensing devices normally require specialized add-ons, which compromises the goal of simplicity. We are interested in developing simple smartphone based sensing platforms – an ELISA signal reading platform and a fluorescent bioassay platform - using a smartphone camera and dedicated algorithms to calculate biomedical signal strength.

Probing Beneath the Surface: A Study of Ancient Egyptian Faience
Michelle F. Whitford[1], Robert Jones[2], Robert M. T. Madiona[2], Nicholas Welch[2], Paul Pigram[2], Karl Van Dyke[3], Yann Tristant[4] and Michael J. Withford[1]
Affiliation list:1. Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University, NSW 2109, Centre for Ultrahigh bandwidth Devices for Optical Systems (CUDOS); 2. Department of Chemistry and Physics, La Trobe University, Victoria 3086, Centre for Materials and Surface Science; 3. Museum of Ancient Cultures, Macquarie University, NSW 2109; 4. Department of Ancient History, Macquarie University, NSW 2109
Abstract: Ancient Egyptian faience is a material of many mysteries. Despite its ubiquity, faience is poorly understood. There is limited knowledge on the recipes and manufacturing processes, which has unfortunately led to a lack of information about faience, unsatisfactory conservation methods, and confusion about the provenance of artefacts. We present new research into faience using state-of-the-art diagnostic tools. Using an Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectrometer (EDX) and a Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (LA-ICP-MS), analysis into the chemical composition of faience reveals that there are key elements used to produce different coloured artefacts. These elements are then matched to potential minerals and mineral sources, and also linked to specific time periods throughout Ancient Egypt. Next, the ageing processes of faience was investigated using a Time-Of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (TOF-SIMS). Ageing in the form of alkali and alkaline leaching is observed in two of the three sets of artefacts, prompting a discussion about fraudulent artefacts. We present for the first time initial TOF-SIMS results that can be used to investigate the authenticity of faience artefacts. Finally, Principal Components Analysis (PCA) was conducted using the TOF-SIMS data to explore elemental similarities and differences between each set. Clear distinctions were observed when PCA was completed for both the hydrocarbon and metal compositions of the three artefact sets.

Compact integrated actively Q-switched waveguide chip laser
Christoph Wieschendorf[1], Josiah Firth[2], Leonardo Silvestri[2], Simon Gross[1], Francois Ladouceur[2], David Spence[1], Michael Withford[1] and Alex Fuerbach[1]
Affiliation list:1. Centre for Ultrahigh Bandwidth Devices for Optical Systems (CUDOS), MQ Photonics Research Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia; 2. Electrical Engineering and Telecommunications, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
Abstract: A novel miniaturized liquid crystal transducer cell was used in combination with a femtosecond laser inscribed active waveguide to realize a compact actively Q-switched laser source. The liquid crystal cell was controlled by a low-voltage frequency generator and pulse durations below 40 ns were demonstrated at repetition rates ranging from 0.1 kHz to 20 kHz and a maximum slope efficiency of up to 22 %. Such an integrated and low-cost laser source is a promising tool for a broad range of applications like trace gas sensing, LIDAR and nonlinear optics.

Semi-integrated Fibre Cavities for Microcavity Polaritons and Beyond
A. Wood, X. Vidal, Sarath R, B. Besga and T. Volz
Affiliation list: ARC Centre of Excellence for Engineered Quantum Systems (EQUS); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW, Australia
Abstract:Over the past decade, semi-integrated Fabry-P´erot fibre microcavities have turned out to be a highly versatile and effective platform for investigating quantum emitters in a cavity-QED setting [1]. Fibre microcavities are made of cleaved fibre facets with small concave indentations as mirror substrates. Fibre based microcavities offer significant benefits over their fully integrated, solid state counter-parts due to their versatility and tunability. Here, we report on a Fibre Imaging and Machining System (FIMS) built at Macquarie University for manufacturing large numbers of fibres with indentations that boast small radius of curvature (RoC), along with the ability to characterise these structures in-situ using laser profilometry. The FIMS employs a CO2 laser ablation system which produces single laser pulses to remove material from the fibres and form concave structures. Through careful control of beam power, beam size and pulse duration, we show that RoCs smaller than 10 m can be realized. For characterisation of the machined structures, we have incorporated a laser profilometry system which allows in-situ access via the exploitation of a movable beam-splitter. The machined fibres are sent for coating to Laseroptik, Germany. The expected finesse is on the order of a few 10,000.

Nanoparticle-labelled ELISA assay on the cell surface for probing cytokine secretion with live cells
Guozhen Liu, Kaixin Zhang, Ayad G. Anwer and Ewa M. Goldys
Affiliation list:ARC Centre of Excellence in Nanoscale Biophotonics (CNBP), Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University, North Ryde 2109, Australia
Abstract: Cytokines secreted from cells play a critical role in controlling cell survival, growth, migration, development, differentiation, and function by binding with specific cytokine receptors and initiating their complex signaling events. Cytokines are heterogeneously released creating unique signalling microenvironment around the reactive and responding cells. Unfortunately, probing how the cells secrete as they respond in real time to the surrounding signals is still a major challenge. Given the important roles of cytokines across the biological spectrum, including in tissue repair, cancer development and progression, in the control of cell replication and apoptosis, and in the modulation of immune reactions. It is critical to advance the understanding of the heterogeneity of cellular cytokine release at the level of single cells. These challenges inspired us to create a simple, sensitive and cytokine single cell analysis platform that enables a nuanced characterization of individual cytokine-secreting cells and quantitative analysis of cytokines secreted from each. This cytokine analysis platforms (1) enables a nuanced characterization of individual immune cells; (2) is capable of quantitative analysis of cytokines secreted from each cell based on fluorescence, (3) is sensitive enough to probe physiologically significant cytokines such as IL-6, IL-1β, (4) does not significantly affect the functioning of assayed cells which can be cultured after selection, and (5) is able to sort the high secreting cells by magnetic field. The sensitivity of OnCELISA is 0.1 pg/mL with the linear range of 0.1-1000 pg/mL. This technology is applicable to a range of physiological and pathological conditions such as tumours.

Development of time-gated Luminescence bio-imaging instruments
Xianlin Zheng[1], Yiqing Lu[1], Dayong Jin[1,2] and James A. Piper[1]
Affiliation list:1. ARC Centre of Excellence for Nanoscale Biophotonics (CNBP), Macquarie University, Australia; 2. Institute for Biomedical Materials and Devices (IBMD), University of Technology Sydney, Australia
Abstract: The general goal for biosensing is to realize ultra-sensitive, high-contrast, rapid and high-throughput detection, localization and quantification of trace amount of bio molecules and disease cells of rare types within complex sample. Luminescent probes, such as lanthanide complexes and photon upconversion nanomaterials, hold the potential to realize this goal, due to their unique optical properties, which include long luminescence lifetimes in the microsecond region and as well sharp spectral emission spectra. Application of the time-gated and time-resolved techniques based on these probes will provide background-free detection conditions. But such a potential has been seriously limited by the availability of suitable instruments.

Linewidth narrowing and laser properties in continuous-wave intracavity terahertz lasers
Yameng Zheng, Andrew J. Lee, David J. Spence and Helen M. Pask
Affiliation list:MQ Photonics Reach Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University, NSW 2109, Australia
Abstract: The Terahertz (THz) region lies in the frequency gap between the infrared and microwave, and is of great interest for potential application in non-destructive testing through condensed matter spectroscopy, medical imaging, security screening and so on. Continuous wave (CW) THz sources have the characteristic of being simply interfaced with detectors and the linewidth of the emission can be made very narrow, as required for high-resolution THz spectroscopy. In my work, an intracavity resonator configuration is applied to generate tunable THz radiation via stimulated polariton scattering (SPS) using diode pump laser of only a few Watts. The properties of a CW THz laser source are presented, with a focus on the use of etalons to reduce the spectral width of the THz output. A key finding is that an improvement in output THz power can be obtained by using etalons to limit the fundamental spectrum to a single narrow peak. The narrowest linewidth we have achieved is 5.6 MHz in fundamental field and 400 MHz in Stokes field, so we anticipate the linewidth of THz field would be less than 400 MHz.

Back to the top of this page